Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

The Effect of Inductive- Deductive Teaching on the Grammar Learning of the Field Dependent- Independent Iranian Efl Language Learners

Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

The Effect of Inductive- Deductive Teaching on the Grammar Learning of the Field Dependent- Independent Iranian Efl Language Learners

Article excerpt

1. Introduction

Grammar is one of the basic elements that every setting of EFL language learning is perpetually contingent on. Lynn Savage, Bitterlin and Price (2010) argue that when grammar is incorrect or misunderstood in any of these areas, communication may be disrupted. Similarly, Takahashi (2005) argues that EFL language learner needs sound grammar knowledge to perform any kind of sophisticated linguistic task and everyday language.

There are different modes to teach grammar and among which we have picked inductivedeductive modes up, since, in different texts and contexts, there have often been innumerable debates and experimental studies on the effectiveness of inductive and deductive modes of teaching materials. But this time, looking piercingly from a new panorama, we endeavored to inquire that effectiveness while considering the inner world (psych) of the learner.

As a revolution in psychology, individual differences constructing the body of personality is composed of two dimensions; learning styles and cognitive styles each entailing several learning and cognitive differences in different individuals resourcing from so many biological, cultural, and gender-specific data. Among cognitive styles this study focuses on bipolar FD/ FI cognitive styles

2. Literature Review

2.1.Grammar Concept

Having a retrospective glimpse of the long history of grammar opens a new avenue to better understand the status of this study in the scope of grammar instruction. The "grammar" concept for the first time conjured up in Greek and always there have been controversial debates between two grammarian (in the favor of teaching grammar) and anti-grammarian (against teaching grammar).

2.2. Inductive Teaching

Larsen-Freeman (2003) believes inductive grammar and language learning is one of the main principles of some methods, such as Direct method, Michigan method (audio-lingual) and Silent method, as cited in Sanze (2005). Nessel and Dixon (2008) argue that the analysis of structure can be taught inductively through guided discovery since teacher's questions invite the students to think and discover the patterns in the known words and generalize the relevant rules.

2.3. Deductive Teaching

Hulstijn (2005) stated, in an explicit teaching instruction, the target grammar rules were always clearly stated or provided at the beginning (deductive approach). Larsen-Freeman (2009, p. 528) maintains that "explicit instruction is where students are instructed in the rules or patterns (deductive)". Archer and Hughes (2010) describe the deductive instruction as a technique whereby the pedagogue introduces demonstrations of the target instructional materials and clear explication on the rationales and aims.

2.4. Cognitive Style

Sternberg and Grigorenko (2001) divided the cognitive styles into three broad categories; cognition-centered, personality-centered, and activity-centered. Cognition centered styles include dimensions such as field dependence vs. field independence, holistic vs. serial processing, leveling vs. sharpening, reflection vs. impulsivity, and so on. Cheng and Zheng (2002, p. 423) define it as: "the learner's way of distinguishing, processing, storing, extracting information in the cognitive process, and the learner's orientation of solving problems as well".

2.5. Field Dependent- Field Independent Cognitive Styles

According to Ehrman and Leaver (2003) FI addresses the degree to which an individual focuses on some aspect of experience and separates it from its background. A FI learner can pick out exactly the tree of his interest among a mass of trees in forest. On the other hand, FD is used in the literature in two ways; a) absence of discrimination and b) awareness of the entire field.

Khoury (2013) states that FI is a feature of learning style which inclines the individuals to decontextualize an item or separate it from its field to re-contextualize it and field sensitivity is individual inclination to adhere and succumb to context in such a way that makes them incompetent to discriminate component parts from their background. …

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