Academic journal article Journal of Financial Management & Analysis

Case Study of Transfer of Adapted Dairy Technology to Thailand: A Methodological Appoach

Academic journal article Journal of Financial Management & Analysis

Case Study of Transfer of Adapted Dairy Technology to Thailand: A Methodological Appoach

Article excerpt

Introduction

Experience has shown that investment of time and resources in introduction of new technology does not necessary yield best results. Usually, in introducing agricultural technologies, developers and planners tend to fit the technology to the physical environment and neglect the socio-economic and political environments. We present a case study describing adaption of dairy technology to the Thailand environment. This method is based on the features of the dairy industry and the special environment of Thailand. Analysis is based on the Morphological Box (MB) method enabling experts to fit technology to specific environment.

Milk industry

Milk production is one of the oldest bio-industries on earth and involves a highly complicated production process comprising plants for feed, animal husbandry, culturing bacteria, milk processing. packaging and distribution. The milk production process involves various biological systems interacting with the environment. In order to harness efficiently bio-system for the benefit of human beings, one needs to separate it from the natural environment, and surround it with an artificially controlled environment. Resources used for separation and control intensify the dairy production. Harnessing a given biosystem will require different degrees of intensification in various environments. For example, in Sweden a cow needs warm shelter while in Saudi Arabia the same cow requires reduction of the ambient temperature and irrigation of its forage. In New Zealand, ambient temperature is suited to the cow and humidity is sufficient for the grass to grow all the year round. hence a lower degree of intensification is required.

The modern production technologies in traditional milk producing countries have evolved over the last few centuries, through a long process of trial and error to fit to the specific physical, social and economic environments peculiar to each country. For each physical environment, only a few technologies seemed appropriate and these became the most commonly used ones. The economic and social environments affect the choice of technology and the organizational setup. The prevailing technologies around the world, as well as systematized agricultural research, offer a wide variety of techniques capable of fulfilling each task in the production process. We tailor from this general pool of knowledge the technology best fitting for the specific Thai environment.

Local Market: The interaction between the dairy cow and the physical environment produces specific seasonal patterns of milk production. For example, in Australia, where the cow grazes on pasture, milk production declines in the dry season as the quality of the grass deteriorates. In tropical countries, the combination of temperature and humidity results in a different seasonal pattern of the cow's reproductive cycle. The modern consumer demands a constant supply of milk and its products as unrelated to the seasonal structure of milk production. Hence, one role of the milk processing industry in any country is to minimize the gaps between the seasonal patterns of supply-and demand. In most of the traditional milk producing countries, this has been achieved by producing storable products, such as hard cheese, butter and, more recently, milk powder. Traditionally, storability is achieved by reducing the water content of the products, which in turn increases the practicability of transportation over long distances. Milk products differ by storability and transportation features, which determine together with distance, framework of local market.

Thai Environment

The traditional Thai diet does not include large quantities of milk products, and the tropical climatic conditions are not supportive of high yielding milk cows. Thai milk consumption is very low - - 7 liter per capita, as compared with 100 liters per capita in the major milk producing countries, but it is growing fast. …

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