Academic journal article Educational Research Quarterly

Developmentalism

Academic journal article Educational Research Quarterly

Developmentalism

Article excerpt

Validation of the Unified Theory

The results of a test of three operationalizations of developmental principles are presented Data from S different groups and 25,029 observations were analyzed. The results agreed with the theory (min r == 0.99) indicating that consciousness and all entities in the physical environment rest within a sphere of intellect confirming principles of classical psychophysics (de Jaager, 1865; Donders, 1868; Fechner, 1966; Helmholtz, 1962, 1924, 18961873, 1852, 1866a, 1866b; Koffka, 1935, 1924; KOhler, 1920, 1940, 1947, 1969; Lewin, 1936, 1935, 1951; Rashevsky, 1935, 1938, 1939; Toulmin, 1972; Weber, 1849, 1851; Wundt, 1890, 1874) and modern physics (Einstein, 1950, 1922; Minkowski, 1923; Pool, 1997; Sakai, 1996; Schrodinger, 1967, 1935; Stillwell, 1996; Winters, 1997).

Since the time of Job man has attempted to impose an order on the universeand understand what he perceived. At the beginning of this millennium time traveled at oxen speed, observable forces of nature defined reality and terror stalked the night. European scholars visited Muslim Spain to learn Arabic literature, astronomy and medicine which, coupled with the influence of the Hellenic scholars, led to the Renaissance and European Christians became acquainted with food cooked in oil, spices, literature, art and music. Jewish scholars and iron smiths either converted to Christianity or exiled in Ghettos (iron foundries) and as primary translators of Arabic and Greek scholarship rediscovered the geography of Ptolemy, and led the Age Of Discovery. By 1500 millions of books were in print and in 1609 Galileo confirmed the speculations of Copernicus. By 1620, Bacon introduced inductive reasoning and logic and by 1700 Descartes and Newtoni conceived of a pragmatic science leading to the industrial revolution. The evolution of the "practical arts" transformed a third world nation (America) into a technological giant and a system of education founded upon St. Benedict' (528 A.D.) 73 articles and Charlemagne's first private school for the sons of noblemen (circa 830).

Psychological theory and practice has paralleled man's perceptions of the physical world and what was necessary to survive within it. The Platonic vs. Socratic approaches parallel the distinction between as pragmatic and existential or a social philosophy (Locke, [1690] 1977). The industrial and agrarian man needed to think about reality in certain ways. Euclidean concepts, Newtonian mechanics, and atomic theory ruled the world of science (Newtoni, 1729/1966; Sakai, 1996, Stillwell, 1996). Cartesian concepts such as multiple regression, factor analysismultidimensional scaling, and structural equation modeling dressed the psychological landscape (Bollen,1989; Goldberger,1973; Harman,1967; Kerlinger, 1986; Kerlinger & Pedhauzer, 1973; Kleinbaum & Kupper, 1978; Larzarsfeld & Henry, 1968; Mulaik, 1972; Pedhazur, 1982; Pedhazur & Schmelkin, 1991; Rummel, 1970; Shepard, Romey & Nerlove, 1972; Tatsuoka, 1971; Torgerson, 1952).

Recent research indicates that atoms exist only in the mind and only when we wish to see them (Pool, 1997; Saka, 1996; Stillwell, 1996; Winters, 1997). They are not well defined structures - they appear in whatever shapes and geometries suit the observer. Atoms, like space, time, and geometry before them, are archaic constructs which have served their usefulness (Einstein, 1950, 1922; Minkowski, 1923; Pool, 1997; Sakai, 1996; Schrodinger, 1967, 1935; Stillwell, 1996; Winters, 1997). Current physicists as well as current and early psychologists, both delving in the world of classical psychophysics, realized that reality (Dirac, 1982; Eddington, 1935; Gribbin, 1984; Hawking, 1996; Heisenberg, 1971, 1970, 1959) "...happens at the intersection of a conscious human life ...is a process of giving meaning to, or seeking to understand, life experiences" (Jarvis, 1991, p. 9-11). This philosophy is also seen in recent psychological research (Calton & Shepard, 1990a, 1990b; Gobel, 1990; Hashway,1988/1989a, 1976a, 1976b; Hashway & Hashway, 1990; Kosslyn, Thompson, Klm, & Alpert, 1995; Pellinonisz & Llinas, 1980, 1979; Shepard, 1966; Shepard & Cooper, 1982; Vandenberghe, Price, Wise, Joseph, & Frackowiak, 1996). …

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