Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education New Zealand

Physical Activity-Based LifeSkills Programmes: Part II - Example Programmes

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education New Zealand

Physical Activity-Based LifeSkills Programmes: Part II - Example Programmes

Article excerpt

In this article we expand on the concept of Lifeskills Programmes outlined in the first article in this two-part series (ie., 'Part I - LifeSkills & the Health & PE Curriculum'; Hodge, Cresswell, Sherburn, & Dugdale, 1999). A number of brief examples of lifeskills programmes are presented that is, the GOAL Programme, the SUPER Programme, Teaching Responsibility through Physical Activity, Project K, and Project Adventure. Then the 'GOAL' Programme is described in detail as a casestudy example of a physical activity-based intervention that focuses on teaching lifeskills to adolescents in New Zealand schools. We believe that physical activity-based lifeskills programmes hold unique promise because of the intense interest and involvement of NZ children in physical activity and sport.

EXAMPLES OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY-BASED LIFESKILLS PROGRAMMES

While there exist a number of lifeskills programmes this paper will highlight 5 programmes that have a physical activity focus. These are: the GOAL Programme; the SUPER Programme; Teaching Responsibility through Physical Activity; Project Adventure; and Project K.

In the previous article ('Part I LifeSkills & the Health & PE Curriculum'; Hodge, Cresswell, Sherburn, & Dugdale, 1999) we outlined the connections between these programmes and the new Health and Physical Education Curriculum (Ministry of Education, 1999).

GOAL Programme

(Hodge & Danish, 1999)

The GOAL Programme consists of 10 one-hour skill-based workshops taught through the Student Activity Book. Sport examples are used in the workshops as a powerful 'metaphor' to highlight the applicability of the skills for producing tangible results (Danish, Petitpas & Hale, 1993). In addition, sport skills and lifeskills are learned in the same way through demonstration, modelling and practice (Danish et al., 1993). Each GOAL workshop begins with the students acting out a brief skit introducing the lifeskills. Skits feature "Goal Seeker", "Goal Buster", and "Goal Keeper" as characters who dramatise the skills to be learned. The one-hour workshops are taught over a 10 week term. A sport metaphor is used extensively with numerous sport examples and the use of sport role models. Adolescents between the ages of 11 - 13yrs are taught by GOAL Leaders (16-17yrs), Workshops are taught in the classroom; the students do not engage in any sport activity, instead they work through sport examples and group exercises with a sport focus from the Student Activity Book.

SUPER Programme

(Hodge & Danish, 1999)

SUPER is a 20-hour, 10-session programme, which is currently being pilot-tested in the USA. Adolescents between the ages of 11 - 13yrs are taught by SUPER Coaches (16-17yrs). Similar to the GOAL Programme, sessions are 'coached' by Senior High School students, but in this programme the skill teaching takes place during sports practice/training sessions with participants involved in three sets of activities:

i) learning the physical skills related to a specific sport (e.g., touch football);

ii) learning lifeskills related to sports in general (e.g., coping with pressure, concentration);

iii) and playing the sport.

Teaching Responsibility through Physical Activity

(Hellison, 1995)

Teachers and coaches are trained to teach high school children to be personally and socially responsible. The sessions typically take place in Physical Education classes. Hellison's (1995) Teaching Responsibility model consists of five levels of responsibility. These levels represent a progression of what it means for students to be responsible and what they need to be responsible for:

a) respect the rights and feelings of others;

b) understand the role of effort in improving oneself in physical activity and life;

c) be self-directed and responsible for their own well-being;

d) be sensitive and responsible for the well-being of others; and

e) apply what they have learned in different non-physical activity/sport settings. …

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