Academic journal article Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences

A Meta-Analysis to Review Organizational Outcomes Related to Charismatic Leadership

Academic journal article Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences

A Meta-Analysis to Review Organizational Outcomes Related to Charismatic Leadership

Article excerpt

Abstract

This study applied meta-analysis to assess the relationship between charismatic leadership style and leadership effectiveness, subordinate performance, subordinate satisfaction, subordinate effort, and subordinate commitment. Results indicate that the relationship between leader charisma and leader effectiveness is much weaker than reported in the published literature when leader effectiveness is measured at the individual level of analysis and when common method variance is controlled. Results also indicate a smaller relationship between charismatic leadership and subordinate performance when subordinate performance is measured at the individual level (r = 0.31) than when it is measured at the group level (r = 0.49 and robust across studies). These results suggest that charismatic leadership is more effective at increasing group performance than at increasing individual performance. Other moderators tested did not account for a significant portion of variance in the observed distribution of correlations, suggesting a need for further research into other potential moderators. Meta-analysis examining the effects of charismatic leadership on subordinate effort and job satisfaction revealed lower correlations when multiple methods of measurement were used, with little convergence toward stable population estimates.

Resume

La meta-analyse a servi a evaluer le rapport entre le style de leadership charismatique et l'efficacite d'un tel style de leadership ainsi que le rendement, la satisfaction, l'effort et l'engagement des subalternes. Les resultats obtenus indiquent que le rapport entre le charisme et l'efficacite du leader est beaucoup plus faible que le proposent les textes publies a ce sujet lorsque l'efficacite du leader est mesure au niveau individuel et lorsque la variance de la methode commune est controlee. Les resultats obtenus revelent egalement un rapport moindre entre le leadership charismatique et le rendement des subalternes lorsque ce rendement est mesure au niveau individuel (r = 0,31) qu'au niveau du groupe (r = 0,49 et notable parmi toutes les etudes passees en revue). Ces resultats suggerent qu'un leadership charismatique contribue davantage a accroitre le rendement du groupe que le rendement individuel. Les autres moderateurs mis a l'essai ne representent pas une portion significative de la variance dans la distribution des correlations observees, ce qui laisser suggerer qu'une autre recherche serait necessaire pour verifier d'autres moderateurs potentiels. La meta-analyse qui etudie l'incidence du leadership charismatique sur l'effort des subalternes et la satisfaction professionnelle demontre des correlations moins marquees, lorsque des methodes de mesure multiples one ete utilisees, de meme qu'une convergence minime a l'egard des estimations de population stable.

Charismatic leaders excite and transform previously dispirited followers into active followers by heightening motivation and instilling a sense of purpose (Burns, 1978). Weber ([1922] 1963) first introduced the term charisma in his theological work. He described charisma as a somewhat super-human attribute, or "an endowment with the gift of divine grace." According to Weber, a charismatic leader is viewed as a mystical, narcissistic, and personally magnetic saviour (Bass, 1988). Contemporary definitions suggest that charismatic leadership results in a strong internalization of the leader's values and goals by the followers, moral commitment to these values, and a tendency for followers to transcend their own self-interests for the sake of the collective (House et al., 1990). The leader is idealized and becomes the model of behaviour who engenders follower commitment (Bass & Stogdill, 1990).

A recent meta-analysis conducted by Lowe, Kroeck, and Sivasubramaniam (1996) highlights the growing research interest in the concept of transformational leadership. Charisma, a major component of transformational leadership, is frequently assessed using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) (Bass & Avolio, 1990). …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.