Academic journal article Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology

End-Point Accuracy of Kinesthetically and Visually Based Corrections to a Mechanically Perturbed Aiming Movement

Academic journal article Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology

End-Point Accuracy of Kinesthetically and Visually Based Corrections to a Mechanically Perturbed Aiming Movement

Article excerpt

Abstract Movement specific correction mechanisms are thought to develop when learning a motor task (cf. Abbs, Gracco, & Cole, 1984). Our goal was to assess the efficency of the correction mechanisms involved in amending a mechanically perturbed aiming movement performed while different afferent sources are available. Subjects performed a multi - degrees of freedom manual aiming movement, which could be unexpectedly perturbed. Subjects performed the task in either a full vision (FV) situation or while only the target to be reached was visible (TO). Neither the absolute constant error (formula or equation not transcribedCEformula or equation not transcribed) nor the variable error (VE) of aiming could differentiate the perturbed and unperturbed trials for the subjects submitted to the FV condition. However, significantly larger (formula or equation not transcribedCEformula or equation not transcribed) and VE were observed for the perturbed trials in the TO condition. This is taken to indicate that the sensorimotor representation of the movement developed through learning is more precise when learning occurs in the presence of more afferent sources. Further, the larger spatial error found in the TO condition for the perturbed trials suggests that when a learned movement is forced out of its usual trajectory, the kinesthetic feedback available, and/or the corrective motor commands, are less accurate than those available when the movement follows its usual trajectory.

Resume On pense que les mecanismes precis de correction des mouvements s'acquierent avec l'apprentissage d'une tache motrice (Abbs, Gracco & Cole, 1984). Notre objectif etait d'evaluer l'efficience des mecanismes de correction qui entrent en jeu dans la modification d'un mouvement de visee mecaniquement perturbe, effectue en presence de differentes sources d'afference. Les sujets ont execute un mouvement de visee qui comportait divers degres de marge de manoeuvre et qui pouvait etre perturbe sans qu'ils ne s'y attendent. Ils devaient effectuer la tache dans une piece eclairee (vision complete) ou dans le noir (seulement la cible a atteindre etait visible). Ni l'erreur constante absolue (formula or equation not transcribedECformula or equation not transcribed) ni l'erreur variable (EV) de la visee n'ont permis de differencier les essais perturbes dans le cas ou la vision etait complete. Par contre, des formula or equation not transcribedECformula or equation not transcribed et EV beaucoup plus grandes ont ete enregistrees pour les essais perturbes lorsque seule la cible etait visible. Ces resultats indiquent que la representation sensorimotrice du mouvement execute par apprentissage est plus precise lorsque davantage de sources d'afference sont presentes durant l'apprentissage. En outre, d'apres la plus grande erreur spatiale commise pendant les essais perturbes lorsque seule la cible etait visible, il semble que la retroaction kinesthesique existante et/ou les commandes motrices correctives sont moins precises quand un mouvement appris est devie de sa trajectoire habituelle.

Over the years, numerous models have been proposed to explain how an individual learns and controls a multi - degrees of freedom aiming movement. Nowadays, however, hybrid models of motor control are favoured. Although a wide variety of these models exist, they all suggest that motor control is achieved by an interplay between central planning and processing of afferent information (Abbs, Gracco, & Cole, 1984; Prablanc, Echallier, Jeannerod, & Komilis, 1979a,b; Schmidt, 1975; van der Meulen, Gooskens, Denier van der Gon, Gielen, & Wilhelm, 1990). In these models, feedback concerning an ongoing movement is important because, once it is recognized, it allows anticipation of the movement consequences associated with it. This predictive process informs the performer about potential errors and allows corrective actions to be carried out before deleterious effects of the movement become manifest. …

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