Academic journal article Notes

Vesper and Compline Music for One Principal Voice / Vesper and Compline Music for Two Principal Voices / Vesper and Compline Music for Three Principal Voices / Vesper and Compline Music for Four Principal Voices / Vesper and Compline Music for Five Principal Voices, Part I-II / Vesper and Compline Music for Six and Seven Principal Voices, Part One-Two / Vesper and Compline Music for Eight Principal Voices, Part One-Two / Vesper Music for Multiple Choirs

Academic journal article Notes

Vesper and Compline Music for One Principal Voice / Vesper and Compline Music for Two Principal Voices / Vesper and Compline Music for Three Principal Voices / Vesper and Compline Music for Four Principal Voices / Vesper and Compline Music for Five Principal Voices, Part I-II / Vesper and Compline Music for Six and Seven Principal Voices, Part One-Two / Vesper and Compline Music for Eight Principal Voices, Part One-Two / Vesper Music for Multiple Choirs

Article excerpt

Vesper and Compline Music for One Principal Voice. Edited with an introduction by Jeffry Kurtzman. (Seventeenth-Century Italian Sacred Music, 11.) New York: Garland Publishing, 1995. [Gen. introd., p. vii-viii; editorial methods, p. ix-xi; introd. to the Vesper and Compline vols., sources and commentary, crit. notes, p. xiii-xxvii; scores, p. 1-291. Cloth; acid-lree paper. ISBN 0-8153-2165-1. $160.] Includes works by Adriano Banchieri, Giovanni Rattista Bassani, Stefano Bernardi, Severo Bonini, Maurizio Cazzati, Ottavio Durante, Isabella Leonarda, Francesco Lucio, Tarquinio Merula, Francesco Petrobelli, Sisto Reina, Giovanni Antonio Rigatti, Giovanni Rovetta, Orazio Tarditi, Lodovico Viadana, and Giovanni Battista Vitali.

Vesper and Compline Music for Two Principal Voices. Edited with an introduction by Jeffrey Kurtzman. (Seventeenth-Century Italian Sacred Music, 12.) New York: Garland Publishing, 1997. [Gen. introd., p. vii- viii; editorial methods, p. ix-xi; introd. to the Vesper and Compline vols., sources and commentary, crit. notes, p. xiii-xxxiii; scores, p. 1-260. Cloth; acid-free paper. ISBN 0-8153-2359-X. $160.] Includes works by Paolo Agostini, Giovanni Francesco Anerio, Adriano Banchieri, Giovanni Battista Bassani, Giovanni Battista Biondi, Francesco Cavalli, Maurizio Cazzati, Giacomo Finetti, Francesco Petrobelli, Sisto Reina, Giovanni Antonio Rigatti, Giovanni Rovetta, and Orazio Tarditi.

Vesper and Compline Music for Three Principal Voices. Edited with an introduction by Jeffrey Kurtzman. (Seventeenth-Century Italian Sacred Music, 13.) New York: Garland Publishing, 1998. [Gen. introd., p. vii-viii; editorial methods, p. ix-xi; introd. to the Vesper and Compline vols., sources and commentary, crit. notes, p. xiii-xxxii; scores, p. 1-312. Cloth; acid-free paper. ISBN 0-8153-2360-3. $140.] Includes works by Agostino Agazzari, Paolo Agostini, Giovanni Francesco Anerio, Francesco Cavalli, Giovanni Paolo Colonna, Leandro Gallerano, Alessandro Grandi, Giovanni Legrenzi, Isabella Leonarda, Tarqumio Mcrula, Pietro Pace, Giovanni Antonio Rigatti, and Orazio Tarditi.

Vesper and Compline Music for Four Principal Voices. Edited with an introduction by Jeffrey Kurtzman. (Seventeenth-Century Italian Sacred Music, 14.) New York: Garland Publishing, 1998. [Gen. introd., p. vii-viii; editorial methods, p. ix-xi; introd. to the Vesper and Compline vols., sources and commentary, crit. notes, p. xiii-xxvii; scores, p. 1-247. Cloth; acid-free paper. ISBN 0-8153-2420-0. $130.] Includes works by Agostino Agazzari, Giovanni Francesco Anerio, Giovanni Battista Biondi, Maurizio Cazzati, Antonio Cifra, Chiara Margarita Cozzolani, Bonifazio Graziani, Giovanni Legrenzi, Isabella Leonarda, Tarquinio Merula, and Lodovico Viadana.

Vesper and Compline Music for Five Principal Voices, Part I-II. Edited with an introduction by Jeffrey Kurtzman. (Seventeenth-Century Italian Sacred Music, 15-16.) New York: Garland Publishing, 1999-2000. [Pt. I. Gen. introd., p. vii-viii; editorial methods, p. ix-xi; introd. to the Vesper and Compline vols., sources and commentary, crit. notes, p. xiii-xxvi; scores, p. 1-251. Cloth; acid-free paper. ISBN 0-8153-2421-9. $155. Pt. II. Gen. introd., p. vii-viii; editorial methods, p. ix-xi; introd. to the Vesper and Compline vols., sources and commentary, crit. notes, p. xiii-xxv; scores, p. 1-268. Cloth; acid-free paper. ISBN 0-8153-2422-7. $140.] Includes works by Giovanni Battista Bassani, Stefano Bernardi, Francesco Cavalli, Giovanni Paolo Colonna, Amadio Freddi, Leandro Gallerano, Bonifazio Graziani, Giovanni Legrenzi, Tarquinio Merula, Giovanni Rovetta, Lodovico Viadana, and Giovanni Battista Vitali.

Vesper and Compline Music for Six and Seven Principal Voices, Part One-Two. Edited with an introduction by Jeffrey Kurtzman. (Seventeenth-Century Italian Sacred Music, 17.) New York: Garland Publishing, c2001. [Pt. 1. Gen. introd., p. vii-viii; editorial methods, p. ix-xi; introd. to the Vesper and Compline vols., sources and commentary, crit. notes, p. xiii-xxviii; scores, p. 1-159. Cloth; acid-free paper. ISBN 0-415-93689-6. Pt. 2. Gen. introd., p. vii-viii; editorial methods, p. ix-xi; introd. to the Vesper and Compline vols., sources and commentary, crit. notes, p. xiii-xxviii; scores, p. 100-259. Cloth; acid-free paper. ISBN 0-415-93690-X; 0-8153-2423-5 (set). $135 (set).] Includes works by Giulio Belli, Angelo Berardi, Giovanni Croce, Ignazio Donati, Natale Monferrato, and Micheli Romano.

Vesper and Compline Music for Eight Principal Voices, Part One-Two. Edited with an introduction by Jeffrey Kurtzman. (Seventeenth-Century Italian Sacred Music, 18-19.) New York: Garland Publishing, c2001-2002. [Pt. 1. Gen. introd., p. vii-viii; editorial methods, p. ix-xi; introd. to the Vesper and Compline vols., sources and commentary, crit. notes, p. xii-xxvii; scores, p. 1-264. Cloth; acid-free paper. ISBN 0-8153-2424-3. $185. Pt. 2. Gen. introd., p. vii-viii; editorial methods, p. ix-xi; introd. to the Vesper and Compline vols., sources and commentary, crit. notes, p. xii-xxiii; scores, p. 1-234. Cloth; acid-free paper. ISBN 0-8153-2425-1. $175.] Includes works by Antonio Burlini, Francesco Cavalli, Giovanni Paolo Colonna, Chiaia Margarita Cozzolani, Leandro Gallerano, Alessandro Grandi, Giovanni Legrenzi, Natale Monferrato, Lorenzo Penna, Bonaventura Rubino, Francesco Soriano, Agostino Steffani, and Lodovico Viadana.

Vesper Music for Multiple Choirs. Edited with an introduction by Jeffrey Kurtzman. (Seventeenth-Century Italian Sacred Music, 20.) New York: Garland Publishing, c2003. [Gen. introd., p. vii-viii; editorial methods, p. ix-xi; introd. to the Vesper and Compline vols., sources and commentary, crit. notes, p. xii-xxiii; scores, p. 1-265; index of texts (all vols.), p. 267-68; index of composers (all vols.), p. 269-70; index of prints (all vols.), p. 271-74; contents of the scries, 2 p. Cloth; acid-free paper. ISBN 0-8153-2426-X. $175.] Includes works by Girolamo Giacobbi, Virgilio Mazzocchi, Tarquinio Merula, and Francesco Soriano.

This massive set represents the fitting culmination to a life's work devoted to the polyphonic Office music of seventeenth-century Italy. In these ten volumes devoted to Vespers and Compline music, Jeffrey Kurtzman has examined and transcribed an enormous chunk of a vast repertory, and any study of Italian liturgical music will be indebted to this effort. Kurtzman's editions form the now completed second component of the twenty-volume set Seventeenth-Century Italian Sacred Music under the general editorship of Anne Schnoebelen (see the reviews of vols. 1-10, Music for the Ordinary of the Mass, 1600-1700, ed. Schnoebelen [1995-99], by Steven Saunders in Notes 56, no. 1 [September 1999]: 228-33; and 60, no. 1 [September 2003]: 277-78). The set originally was to contain five additional volumes devoted to motets, 1600-1650, edited by Jerome and Elizabeth Koche. After Jerome Roche's death in 1994, his widow agreed to carry on her husband's contribution to the series (see the general introduction, p. via, as late as vol. 16 [2000]), and the individual volumes remain advertised in the 2000 Garland Publishing catalog. These plans were subsequently abandoned after Garland Publishing was acquired by the Taylor & Francis Group and then subsumed under Routledge, a member of the Taylor £ Francis Group (the series title page retains "in twenty-five volumes" through vol. 18; vols. 19-20 read "twenty volumes").

Although the most familiar edition of seventeenth-century Vespers music is obviously Claudio Monteverdi's 1610 publication issued in Venice by Ricciardo Amadino (Sanctissimae Virgini missa senis vocibus ad ecclesiarum chores ac vesperae pluribus decantan(dae . . .), there was an enormous amount of music for Vespers printed in early modern Italy, together with a few volumes for the following Hour of Compline. The overall production is slanted toward composers who were able to have their works issued by the Venetian publishing houses; later in the century, after 1660, this preference shifted toward Bolognese printers. In his book on the Monteverdi Vespers (The Monteverdi Vespers of 1610: Music, Context, Performance [Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1999]), Kurtzman outlines this repertory during the first part of the century, but it is very clear that he has studied-exhaustively-the entire century in the process of preparing this set of editions. Psalm and Magnificat settings for Vespers constitute the overwhelming majority of the contents, and for Vespers Kurtzman has also included some settings of the introductory response (Domine ad adiuvandum mefestina), hymns by various composers (largely for different Commons of the Saints), and a representative selection from the few, but important, Proper settings of the century (most notably Giovanni Francesco Anerio's [ca. 1567-1630] Antiphonae, seu sacrae cantiones [Rome: Giovanni Battista Robletti, 1613]; here in vols. 12 and 13). Although Compline was clearly a secondary Hour (and the practical reality of its musical fusion with preceding Vespers has yet to be investigated fully), there are a number of interesting editions published in the 1600s (such as Giovanni Antonio Rigatti's [ca. 1613-1648] Salmi diversi di complieta in diversi generi di canto [Venice: Alessandro Vincenti, 1646]), along with Compline items included in collections of Vespers, and Kurtzman has included some rather interesting selections in volumes 11 and 15-17 (this last volume, incidentally, has been issued in two parts with continuous musical pagination and a repeated introduction), along with the eight-voice works for both Hours in volumes 18 and 19.

Kurtzman's labors reflect this mammoth output. It is almost impossible to imagine the amount of time required to select, transcribe, and edit the 124 pieces contained in this set, and future scholarship will be forever in his debt for his efforts. It seems mean-spirited to wish for micro-adjustments to the list of pieces chosen, but Kurtzman's selection seems ever so slightly tilted toward northern Italy, toward the first two decades of the century, and toward those whose publications have survived. Had Kurtzman been granted another volume's worth of music from his publisher, my own wish list would include more Roman works, such as selections from Francesco Foggia's (1604-1688) five-voice Psalmodia vespertina, liber 2, op. 13 (Rome: Amadeo Belmonti, 1667), or the Psalmi vespertini, op. 5, by the Roman chapelmaster Bonifazio Graziani (1604/5-1664 [Rome: Vitale Mascardi, 1653]), who is represented by only two hymns in volumes 14 and 16 (for an overall study of this repertory, see Rainer Heyink, I vespri concertati nella Roma del Seicento, Studi, cataloghi e sussidi dell'Istituto di bibliografia musicale, 4 [Rome: Istituto di bibliografia musicale, 1999]). Similarly, the four contemporaneous anthologies of psalms for six and eight voices (Raccolta de' salmi a otto de diversi eccellentissimi autori, libro 5, op. 2 [Naples: Giovanni Giacomo Carlino, 1615], Salmi, Magnificat et motetti à sei, libro 1, op. 6 [Orvieto: gli Heredi del Zannetti, 1621], Salmi, himni et Magnificat concertati à otto vod, op. 11 [Venice: Bartholomeo Magni, 1630], and Salmi, Magnificat a otto voci con basso continua, op. 13 [Orvieto: Rinaldo Ruuli, 1639]) compiled by the director, editor, and composer Fabio Costantini (ca. 1570/5-1644), which do not figure at all in the Garland collection, provide at least one Rome-centered view of central Vespers repertory between 1615 and 1640 (see Mary Paquette-Abt, "A Professional Musician in Early Modern Rome: The Life and Print Program of Fabio Costantini, c. 1579-c. 1644" [Ph.D. diss., University of Chicago, 2003], 252-74 and 296-317). Naples, too, might be represented by either Giovanni Maria Trabaci's (ca. 1575-1647) Psalmi vespertini quatuor vocibus, liber 2 (Venice: Bartolomeo Magni, 1630), or some of the later works by Francesco Provenzale (1624-1704), in manuscript in the Biblioteca Oratoriana dei Gerolamini (Filippini) in Naples-and it would have been nice to have had some pieces from the Florence cathedral (Marco da Gagliano [1582-1643], or Giovanni Battista da Gagliano [1594-1651], or Pietro Sanmartini [1636-1701], for example). But none of these lacunae should take away from Kurtzman's extraordinary efforts in presenting this repertory, an almost unparalleled task of editing seventeenth-century sacred music.

Kurtzman's principle for grouping the pieces may also seem unusual at first glance, as he has defined his "principal voices" as the number of vocal (only) parts necessary for the minimum realization of a piece (hence ripieno parts do not count), and has organized each volume around this grouping (as in seventeenth-century practice, the almost ubiquitous basso continuo is not included in the number). This arrangement actually facilitates the compositional comparison of what would seem on the surface to be disparate pieces, and also reflects the exigencies of practical music making at the time of this repertory's creation (when church music directors seem to have organized performances around the number of available voices). From the perspective of assembling possible liturgical reconstructions, though, it does mean that scholars and performers will have to hunt and pick among the various volumes, as none are organized by liturgical occasion.

The overall editorial procedure for each volume is generally the same-a repealed general introduction by general editor Schnoebelen, familiar from the first ten volumes of Seventeenth-Century Italian Sacred Music, that deals with basic issues of notation and performance practice, is followed by an introduction specific to each volume (but whose first eight paragraphs remain unchanged from volume to volume). The ensuing section of sources and commentary then considers each piece in the specific volume in turn, with critical notes following. These lists can be quite extensive, especially for the more careless printers from the second half of the century; the problems with accidentals in Lorenzo Penna's (1613-1693) Beati omnes (vol. 19, no. 16) is one good case in point.

With a repertory whose texts remain essentially invariant, the analysis must perforce concentrate on the musical rhetoric of text setting and placement. Kurtzman gives good accounts of these pieces, and, perhaps because the sheer pressures of production had eased, there is a perceptible lengthening and deepening of his writing from about volume 14 onwards. This anthology gives us the possibility of hearing off the page the major changes in compositional approach pioneered by figures of the 1630s and 1640s: Tarquinio Merula (1594/5-1665), Giovanni Rovetla (1595/7-1668), Rigatti, and Chiara Margarita Cozzolani (1602-1676/8), most notably the displacement and rearrangement of text in order to create refrain, cyclic, and repetitive structures. These changes in compositional approach have inspired Kurtzman to some of the best writing to be found in these prefaces, for instance his approach to Natale Monferrato's (ca. 1615-1685) seventy-two-page Dixit Dominus of 1671 (vol. 19, no. 13) and Cozzolani's Beatus vir of 1650 (vol. 18, no. 9).

The issue of pitch analysis is, of course, considerably more complicated in this repertory. For reasons that are not entirely clear, most of the analysis-except for the very earliest composers represented, Giovanni Croce, ca. 1557-1609 (vol. 17, no. 5), Francesco Soriano, 1548/9-1621 (vol 18, no. 5; vol. 20, nos. 2-3), and Lodovico Viadana, ca. 1560-1627 (v. 11, no. 3; vol. 14, no. 4; vol. 15, nos. 1-3; vol. 19, no. 18)-employs the language of eighteenth-century tonality in accounting for both overall and small-scale (i.e., at the verse level) pitch hierarchy. It is clear that much of the later repertory (Giovanni Paolo Colonna, 1637-1695 [vol. 13, no. 12; vol. 16, no. 15; vol. 19, no. 17], Giovanni Battista Bassani, ca. 1650-1716 [vol. 11, no. 17; vol. 12, nos. 2, 11; vol. 16, no. 16], and even Agostino Steffani, 1654-1728 [vol. 19, nos. 14-15]) can partially be explained in these terms, even without recourse to the system of toni recently explored by Gregory Barnett ("Modal Theory, Church Keys, and the Sonata at the End of the Seventeenth Century," Journal of the American Musicological Society 51 [1998]: 245-81) and Michael Oodds ("The Baroque Church Tones in Theory and Practice" [Ph.D. diss., University of Rochester, Eastman School of Music, 1998] ), but I do wonder about the heuristic helpfulness of this approach for figures of the first two decades of the century (Girolamo Giacobbi, 1567-1628 [vol. 20, no. 1], Agostino Agazzari, ca. 1580-1642 [vol. 13, no. 2; vol. 14, no. 5], or Amadio Freddi, fl. 1594-1634 [vols. 15-16, nos. 4-6, 17-18]).

On the level of the actual editing, Kurtzman has done his usual careful job of sorting through the pieces. In a move to be applauded, he has taken seriously the indications for downward transposition (chiavette) present in rubrics and transposed organ parts, presenting a number of psalms down a fourth from their printed pitch. However much controversy this may have caused in previous editions and performances (the Monteverdi 1610 collection, for example), it seems absolutely unassailable on scholarly grounds. Kurtzman is also scrupulous in noting the possibilities for ad libitum parts, another side of contemporaneous performance practice. In what seems to have become the latest bone of contention among editors of seventeenth-century music (one with odd generational overtones), he adds continue figures fairly consistently in order to reinforce or clarify the voice leading. The additions seem generally reasonable, although tracking them is a bit clumsy, as they are noted as editorial emendations only in the prefatory material. I wonder why Garland could not have devised a method, as other publishers regularly do, for typographically differentiating editorial and notaled figures. Readers will have to adapt to inconsistent placement of the instrumental (string) parts below the vocal lines in volumes 11-13, but above them (following common practice) from volume 14 onward (also from this point on-wards, the volumes sometimes provide the abbreviated name of each part in the left margin of an opening, which is a further help). But in all this quantity of music, it is a welcome feature to note that the actual musical and literary texts are very accurate (although a small quibble might be to ask for the expansion of "&" to "et" for the benefit of those singers unfamiliar with Latin).

The volumes have been produced in a manner familiar to users of other Garland music productions, although it is a relief to note that the wide measure-spacing and excessive blank space typical of some earlier series seem to have disappeared here. The one incidence of obviously sloppy production comes in volume 16 (part 2 of the five-voice works), which was issued with the wrong contents page and an inserted errata sheet. But the completion of the twenty volumes of Seventeenth-Century Italian Sacred Music stands as a major moment in the still tardy publication of the musical repertory of seventeenth-century Europe, and as such it should be an occasion for satisfaction among scholars-an occasion, alas, given the stale of scholarly publishing, increasingly less likely to repeat in the future, at least in a traditional book or volume format.

[Author Affiliation]

ROBERT L. KENDRICK

University of Chicago

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.