Abstract: This study examined the effects of community, coworker and organizational support with the job satisfaction of nurses in Cameroon in six major components of the job namely; work, pay, promotion, supervision,.co-worker relationships and the job in general. Each variable was examined separately.
A convenience sample of 158 staff nurses, participated in this study. The Job Descriptive Index (JDI) questionnaire and the Job In General (JIG) scales were used to measure job satisfaction. Focus group interviews and a content analysis of major themes were conducted.
Inferential statistics were used to test the effects of community, co-worker and organizational support and job satisfaction.
Results showed significant, positive effects between perceived level of community support, coworker support and organizational support with components of job satisfaction sub-scales.
These results are useful for nurse educators, and researchers in the formulation and implementation of effective health policies for nurses and health care organizations.
Key words: community, leadership, job satisfaction, Cameroon
The Republic of Cameroon is a triangular shaped independent country, covering 295,151 miles (about the size of California) on the coast of West Africa. In compliance with primary health care concepts Nurses in Cameroon perform a vital role in health promotion and disease prevention through working with individuals, families and their respective communities to help people solve their own health problems. In Cameroon, nurses' aides (NA), registered nurses (RN), and state registered nurses (SRN), are trained for one, two, and three- year programs respectively. Entry into the training schools is dependent upon passing a competitive examination into either program. The one -year training program is the least intense while the three-year program is the most intense. These nurses function in urban and rural health care settings. The success of primary health care goals of health promotion and disease prevention may well be determined by the ability of nurses to carry out health education interventions, their overall satisfaction with their job. and the degree to which community members have access to essential health services.
Conceptual Framework and Literature Review Herzberg's Motivation - Hygiene Theory
Work motivation was defined as "a series of energizing forces that originate from within and beyond-an individual. These forces both initiate the work-related behavior and determine the nature, direction, intensity and duration of the individual's behavior" (Alpander 1990, p.51).
For this study, Herzberg's motivation and hygiene theory 1966), also known as Herzberg's two-factor theory, provided a framework. According to Herzberg, two unique dimensions involved in employee motivation may contribute to job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction:
1.Motivating (intrinsic) factors: When motivating factors are present within the job, they may lead to job satisfaction. If absent, they do not contribute to job dissatisfaction, but may cause no job satisfaction. Examples of motivators include achievement, recognition, a challenging workplace, job responsibility, promotion and job advancement, and possibilities for growth.
2. The hygiene (extrinsic) factors: The hygiene factors are those conditions that surround the job. When hygiene factors are not present, the employee will be dissatisfied with the work. However, when hygiene factors are present, they neither produce job satisfaction nor do they serve as motivators. Examples of hygiene factors are company policies and administration, supervision, salary, inter-personal relations, working conditions, social position and job security.
An advantage of this theory is its work-oriented terminologies, which are well suited to the work situation, and thus easily applied and interpreted. In fact, a major contribution of Herzberg's motivation and hygiene theory was a change of approach to the study of job satisfaction from a uni-dimensional continuum to a dual-factor perspective (Meservey, 1987). …