Academic journal article The Catholic Historical Review

Die Lateinischen Patriarchen Von Jerusalem: Von der Eroberung der Heiligen Stadt Durch Die Kreuzfahrer 1099 Bis Zum Ende der Kreuzfahrerstaaten 1291

Academic journal article The Catholic Historical Review

Die Lateinischen Patriarchen Von Jerusalem: Von der Eroberung der Heiligen Stadt Durch Die Kreuzfahrer 1099 Bis Zum Ende der Kreuzfahrerstaaten 1291

Article excerpt

Die lateinischen Patriarchen von Jerusalem: Von der Eroberung der Heiligen Stadt durch die Kreuzfahrer 1099 bis zum Ende der Kreuzfahrerstaaten 1291. By Klaus-Peter Kirstein. [Berliner Historische Studien, Band 35: Ordensstudien XVI.] (Berlin: Duncker and Humblot. 2002. Pp. 683. euro 88.00.)

After an introduction which surveys the sources and the secondary literature and details the "Fragestellung und Methode," this book is divided into three sections: a study of the patriarchal office (pp. 58-90); biographies of the individual patriarchs (pp. 91-447); and a thematic survey that weaves together the various activities and relationships touched upon in the biographical section (pp. 448-506). A ten-page "Epilog" locates the patriarchs in the broader context of medieval ecclesiastical developments.

There is a great deal here that is of considerable interest. As part of the 'Pentarchy' of sees into which Christendom was historically divided, the patriarchates of Jerusalem and Antioch liberated from Muslim rule in 1098-9 posed a potential threat to the emerging Reform Papacy. Jerusalem and Antioch also contested jurisdiction over the archbishopric of Tyre and its suffragans, a problem never properly resolved during the lifetime of the Latin states in Syria and Palestine. There were tensions between the patriarchs and the canons of the Holy Sepulchre. The history of relations during the twelfth century with other religious corporations in Jerusalem-St. Mary of the Latins, St. Mary in the Valley of Josaphat, the Templum Domini, the Mount of Olives, and Mount Sion-is one of their gradual emancipation from patriarchal jurisdiction. The most spectacularly successful of these rival bodies, of course, were the nascent Military Orders of the Temple and the Hospital, which with papal assistance had achieved full exemption by 1170. The loss of most of the patriarchs' landed resources, together with the majority of their suffragan sees, in the débâcle of 1187 meant that they never again enjoyed such a powerful position vis-à-vis the archbishop of Tyre or the papacy as they had earlier in the century. …

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