Academic journal article et Cetera

The Extensional Theory of Happiness

Academic journal article et Cetera

The Extensional Theory of Happiness

Article excerpt

REMEMBER OUR extensional bargain. When I say something, you should index it. You must do this to limit it to the context in which I say it. My statements, and any statements, are worthless verbiage when taken out of their context, out of the 'environment' in which they were said and made operative. By indexing statements, not only words, you are prepared for this. To give you an example of this I will give you an extensional theory of happiness. That theory is in a way final because it is based only on extensional clarifications and I may add that the diagram of happiness, which I will show you, has high psychotherapeutic value and by now is used by some psychiatrists with patients. Remember, quotation marks are used to cover 'facts' in their contexts too. 'Facts' themselves mean nothing, but only in a context are they valuable. 'Facts' in a context, meaning a situation, etc., have value.

A combination of relationships that applies to what we say constitutes the context of'fact' and gives it meaning or values. The interrelation of relation in a context gives 'fact' its value. If you don't consider these relationships of the context, the 'facts' mean nothing (no value). Well, here then we have a number of facts in quotation marks, and then comes our problem of evaluation, individual or the one which was given to us which ultimately turns out to involve expectation based on some standards of values. This is the happiness formula again. Remember that this analysis is only possible by extension. By intension you could not do it.

This [is] already an application of extensional method. Now here comes our expectations. Here are some 'factfs],' any kind of 'facts' ('F'). I call the new, expectation2 (E2). Remember that this analysis can be made only by extension, not by intension. Now, you expect, in regard to the facts of life, say, 'nothing' (minimum). That is you are told to expect minimum. What will we find in actual life? You will find the facts better than you expected. Remember you were taught to expect the minimum. You will find that the facts in life will actually be better because you expected nothing. Then your reactions or evaluations would be '"facts' are better than expected," that will react on the living you, encouraging you, etc., to happier living. Say I expect five students here and find seventy-five. I got more than I expected. The interest is better. The facts are better than I expected. And I am happy then. I feel like working ahead in the world where I expect five and get seventy-five. This applies to every one of you, in every phase of life. If you expect, say 'nothing,' in the actual living, bumping against facts, impact with the environment, you will find the facts better than you expected. You will be encouraged. You will not be cynical; you will not be bitter; etc. Life then will be happier for you as living protoplasm reacting to the impact of the environment. Expect the minimum. That is expectation^sub 2^ (E^sub 2^). That is the new extensional infinite-valued expectations based on maximum probability.

Finding the facts better than you expected, you will be cheerful, you will be hopeful, you will be striving for a better end in your life just because you expected minimum, and will become convinced that you can get the maximum and you most likely will succeed.

Now the old way often ruins people and only brings about unhappiness, neurosis and even psychosis. Expectation^sub 1^ expects too much. If you expect too much, or maximum, the 'facts' will appear worse to you. In the old we are educated to expect too much. Our parents, educators, etc., expect too much. They nag life out of us and make psychotics or neurotics out of us. Now here comes the impact of the environment. As you see I do not change' the 'facts' on the diagram at all. Say I expected five hundred students and I get seventy-five. I would not get my expectation and I would be unhappy. When you expect too much we find the facts worse. …

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