Academic journal article South Asian Journal of Management

Indian and International Perspectives on Employee Training Practices: A Trend Report

Academic journal article South Asian Journal of Management

Indian and International Perspectives on Employee Training Practices: A Trend Report

Article excerpt

The recent trend is to emphasize on applying a systematic approach to training in almost all the organizations in order to achieve effective training and enhanced level of organizational effectiveness. Many organizations across the countries have recognized that training is a strategic priority rather than a tactical response, which may be used as a catalyst for change and also as an aid to give an organization a competitive edge. Majority of the organizations, therefore, have a definite policy of training and it is formally being aligned to corporate strategy rather than remaining peripheral to organizational functions. As the world economy integrates, training the expatriates is also being emphasized. The training of expatriates and their performance have been found to be positively related. There are significant differences in training systems/practices across the countries and significant similarities within the specific country. This is, indeed, influenced by industry trends and cultural characteristics. MNCs, therefore, are adopting diverse training strategies and are also facilitating employee training in their foreign affiliates. Both the availability of required quality and quantity of Human Resource (HR), maintenance of such employment through training, as well as the HR's strategic responses to the worldwide changes ultimately determine the competitive strength of a firm within a nation or across the countries. Hence organizations in today's world need to follow the principle "innovation-training-development-action-sustainable growth" with true concern for the meaningful development of human society as a whole. All these issues have-been discussed by citing relevant research findings in this paper.


Any Human Resource Development (HRD) endeavor including training, if operated in isolation, fails to bring out the expected outcome, unless it is conceived as one of the key subsystems of the entire management of the organization. Therefore, the effectiveness of a system or subsystems, whether it is a 'training system' or otherwise depends on the extent to which the set of subsystems are integrated. Training/retraining is the most important function that directly contributes to HRD. Relevant researches revealed that training system in most of the organizations happens to be ineffective or less effective for one or the other parameters. It is also widely believed that training system is not fulfilling its proper role in various organizations. Keeping this in view, each subsystem of the training system requires special attention of the practicing professionals which must be carefully examined.


The emphasis to apply a systematic approach to training is now being given in almost all the organizations; in order to ensure effective training and hence the enhanced level of organizational effectiveness. Various models presenting systematic approach to training, by and large, contain the same activities, viz., investigation of training needs, designing training programs, organizational conduct of training and assessment of training effectiveness. Almost all the models were developed around these activities with minor variations.

Buckley and Caple (2000) have developed a pragmatic model with a view to illustrate the systematic approach to training process, which managers are supposed to follow; if the purpose of effective training is to be achieved. This model is being shown in Figure 1.

(i) Framing Terms of Reference for Training: At the outset, a client organization/department in consultation with the training organization/training department/training consultant/trainer must clearly specify exactly what has to be done, so that the expectations of both the client and the training service provider can be seen in a realistic light. At this stage an action plan should be devised and communicated to all concerned.

(ii) Further Investigation of Training Requirements: After framing the terms of reference for training, there is a need to undertake a study of training requirements. …

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