Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

Traditional and Modern Elements of Ethics in Poetry of Nima Yushij

Academic journal article Modern Journal of Language Teaching Methods

Traditional and Modern Elements of Ethics in Poetry of Nima Yushij

Article excerpt

Introduction

Ethics and its definition is one of the most complex and elusive topics of all ages leading to various descriptions and characteristics depending on philosophers' worldview. However, it can be said that ethics is rooted in ethos, the Greek word which is the knowledge of destructive and resuscitative qualities and how to be adorned with such liberating properties and be released from ruinous characteristics (Modarresi, 2009: 17). Accompanied with "ethics" discussion as a philosophical subject, there is another topic named "morals" which can be interpreted as "ethics in the public domain". In addition to ethics and moral philosophy, scholars have established another branch of knowledge whose duty is to study moral issues and events in an attainment manner as a series of social phenomena that can be examined. As a matter of fact, ethics is a branch of sociology that investigates people's moral behaviors and manners in the society in different times and places (Ibid: 21-22). According to above mentioned, it can be concluded that what can be pursued in the literature of ethics concept is the "morals" not ethics in its philosophical sense. When reviewing ethical components of Nima's poetry, we also can see that what is displayed as moral issues in his poems can only be defined within the society and in dealing with all of its elements. Some of these ethical implications are as old as the history of human beings and some others could only be defined in the context of today's civil society and in connection with phenomena such as modernity. What is of great significance in Nima's poetry is the fact that he always highlights "individuality" and addresses the elements of lower importance such as soldier, kharkan (one who digs up prickly bushes) and night watcher as it can be referred to as one of Nima's innovations in the field of revolutionizing lyrics content. The traditional approach to the society system chain in the classic poetry is an individual and mechanical standpoint that disregards linkages between components and only considers larger and more important loops. But the new community approach to the society is of organic kind in which every component no matter how small it s affects other elements and gets affected by them (Abbasi, 2006: 172). This organic approach to the society is a topic that has turned into an evolved feature in Nima's poetry.

Discussion

To illustrate the place of ethics in the literature, we need to first understand what literature's nature is. This becomes clearer to some extent if we accept that the nature of any object is defined according to its function. Questions about functions and duties of literature has a long history and dates back to Plato time. After poets were driven from Plato's utopian society for reasons like imitation, tendency to romanticizing and ignoring reason, figures such as Aristotle, Horace and Sydney seems to have moderated this concept and described some privileges and advantages of literature that happened to have moral functions inside. Aristotle believes that what poets do is of great importance as they address issues that might happen so he defines tragedy by introducing catharsis or purification to point to its ethical use. After him, Horace defines two properties for poetry one creating pleasure and the other usefulness. Pleasure comes from creator's (poet) fair-minded endeavor and the usefulness is related to making abominable affairs look more beautiful and encouraging the reader to evolve and get better which highlights the stance of morality. Sydney introduces the poet as a teacher of ethical knowledge and believes that "a lie can also be a good thing provided that it is a virtual and symbolic way to teach moral principles" (Ditches, 2009: 99). He believes that poetry is only the most excellent means of declaration and its value lies in what it passes on. In his treatise, "A defense of Poetry" and against accusations charged by the church followers who were influenced by Plato's spiritual thoughts, Sydney demonstrates poet as the teacher of ethics and thus bridges literature and philosophy and mentions the moral function of poetry. …

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