Academic journal article International Journal of Islamic Thought

The Announcement of Dar Al-Harb in Cyber Media in Context of the Theological Policy of Jihad: Reading the Cyber-Jihad and ISIS Based on the Pharmakon Characteristic of the Cyber Media

Academic journal article International Journal of Islamic Thought

The Announcement of Dar Al-Harb in Cyber Media in Context of the Theological Policy of Jihad: Reading the Cyber-Jihad and ISIS Based on the Pharmakon Characteristic of the Cyber Media

Article excerpt

Before understanding and making sense of the pharmakon character of cyber media as well as the phenomenon of jihad, we would like to begin by describing the technology of the Internet, which is an important phenomenon in the development of the Western world in terms of communication sociology. This is because the West created a curious development in its quest for growth and founded and improved ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), which is the premise of the Internet. This network became more popular and widespread and also became the topic of democratic public spaces. In fact, it was intended to be a "defense project". There was no way for the West to know that this new defense project would be used by mujahids when they were creating it. Yet, there was a production similar to the chimeric living things which carry multiple DNA profiles in the same body together. The Internet is a tool which is almost impossible to supervise and determine who, how, and for what purposes it will be used. The most controversial example of this is the announcement of jihad against the Western world by the radical Islamic terrorist organization ISIS.

The Internet came into existence as a defense project funded by the West, and it has been used by some radical (Eastern) Islamic organizations for a very long time. However, ISIS is the first organization that followed an Internet policy including having their mujahids develop software programs to increase the number of tweets they send; that is, they transformed this tool of defense into an attacking tool which is as competent and sufficient as it was intended to be. They see the Internet as a battlefield where the disbelievers can fight against them (e.g. do their propaganda and make an anti-Islam lifestyle attractive through movies and websites), and as an area of Dar al-Harb (House of War) which should become Dar aï-Islam (House of Islam). ISIS have discovered an area in cyber media where they can fight with the state authorities and even the "big Western evil allies" they oppose to in the world as an Islamic organization and as equals practically without leaving their geography for the first time in history.

The Roots of the Cyber Media: "The Internet: From a Defense Project to an Antagonistic Weapon"

There are two fundamental approaches to the intentions and circumstances of the creation of the Internet. These approaches both deny each other and bring us closer to the dualist character of the Internet. The first approach indicates that the ARPANET, which is the premise of the Internet, was started as a defense project against nuclear attacks when the intercontinental ballistic missiles were developed. The second approach, which was claimed by the multiple writers of the article "A Brief History of the Internet", is that the ARPANET was not designed to resist to a nuclear attack. Accordingly, the main intention of the ARPANET was to solve the problems related to the loss of capacity created by the geographic disconnection between the researchers in the country. In other words, it is completely addressed to the civil targets of civil researchers.

What and who these researchers were that were struggling with these crucial disconnections and losses is also controversial, because the efforts to prevent the crucial disconnections and losses can also be seen as defensive and/or protective. The purposes and circumstances of the development of the Internet have been discussed. Another discussion emphasizes the dualist character of the Internet and its relation to freedom of expression, participation, and equality, which are the core qualities of democracy.

The arguments that the Internet, in contrast with other types of media, eliminated the inequalities between gender and age groups, classes of income, urban and rural areas, developed and under-developed parts of cities, and the inequalities between cities, regions, countries, and continents thanks to the equal access facility it provides has created a debate in communication and sociology that brought technological determinists to the concept of a "global village". …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.