Academic journal article Planning and Changing

Using the Competing Values Framework (Cvf) to Examine Teacher Satisfaction in Tennessee Schools

Academic journal article Planning and Changing

Using the Competing Values Framework (Cvf) to Examine Teacher Satisfaction in Tennessee Schools

Article excerpt

Many studies indicate that job satisfaction influences the emotional and physical well-being of an individual (Ducharme & Martin, 2000; Olsen & Dilley; 1988; Pugliesi, 1999). The concept of job satisfaction is a widely used constructive measure of a worker's assessment of overall approval, pleasure, and achievement in his/her job (Spector, 1997). In a study designed to evaluate school environment and school effectiveness, Ostroff (1992) observed that "organizations that have more satisfied employees are more productive and profitable than organizations whose employees are less satisfied" (p. 963). That is, although teachers may simultaneously like and dislike different aspects of their school environment, through their own rational calculation they arrive at an overall appraisal regarding effort/performance relationships, collegial support, job participation and productivity. Brown, Hohenshil, and Brown (1988) noted that job satisfaction is necessary to ensure continuous and high quality instruction to students and the teachers who work with them.

Researchers synonymously define teacher satisfaction as a form of heterogeneous but related factors such as career commitment, job performance attendance, and internal motivation. Scholars in the field of organizational behavior have examined a teacher's low levels of job satisfaction to be the most common reason for turnover. Early studies focus on one's affective attachment to the job either in its entirety (global satisfaction) or with regard to particular aspects (facet satisfaction) (Scarpello & Campbell, 1983; Highhouse & Becker, 1993). Whereas job facet satisfaction refers to feelings and attitudes that may be contributing to certain teacher behaviors about specific job aspects, global job satisfaction pertains to teachers' general levels of job satisfaction instead of teachers' satisfaction with specific aspects of their job. For example, several surveys ask about a teacher's satisfaction with facets of the following kinds: bonuses, workload, obstacles to autonomy and creativity in the classroom, level of communication, relationships between principal and teachers, among others. We believe there is no particular reason for making any such distinction, in so far as this study concerns an overall appraisal of the school environment (climate), paying attention not only to narrowly defined working conditions but also to the interpersonal and organizational contexts in which teachers work. One very salient differentiating variable with respect to the satisfaction levels of teachers appears to be the effect on organizational performance. For instance, Shulz and Teddlie (1989) find that teachers with high job satisfaction believed that their schools are more effective in productivity, efficiency, adaptability, and flexibility than teacher with low job satisfaction.

The varied aspects of working conditions that can impact teacher satisfaction have been shown in many well-documented studies. Significant factors include administrative support and leadership, student behavior and school atmosphere, parental support, teacher autonomy and control, and efficacy (Quaglia, Marion & McIntire, 1991; Culver, Wolfle, & Cross, 1990; Lee, Dedrick & Smith, 1991; Ma & MacMillan, 1999; Perrachione, Rosser & Peterson, 2008; Renzulli, Parrott & Beattie, 2011; Reyes & Pounder, 1993; Weiss, 1999; Murnane & Olsen, 1990; McCarthy & Guiney, 2004; Loeb, Darling-Hammond & Luczak, 2005). While numerous studies (Darling-Hammond, 1990) assert that teachers consider classrooms as the focal point of a school and that extensive involvement from principals at the classroom level is important, other scholars claim that teachers' perceptions of themselves as contributors to the whole school is also important because they influence the satisfaction level beyond their classroom (Ma & MacMillan, 1999). Rosenholtz and Simpson (1990) suggested that in order to improve schools, a work environment that enhances teacher satisfaction should be provided. …

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