Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Effectiveness of Different Options When Teaching Children Basic Movements Due to Certain Handedness

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Effectiveness of Different Options When Teaching Children Basic Movements Due to Certain Handedness

Article excerpt

Introduction

Triathlon The child's brain during the preschool period is already marked by functional asymmetry. It is genetically conditioned (DeVries, Wimmers, Ververs, 2001; Crow, Close, Dagnall, & Priddle, 2009), and some expressions of functional asymmetry include features of functional distribution in the cerebral hemispheres, the specifics of processing information in them, the violation and specific behavioural responses in the event of changes in the functional state of the cerebral hemispheres, and a dependence on emotions, memory, and adaptation type (Cherbuin & Brinkman, 2006).

From the point of functional asymmetry, motor asymmetry is considered to be one of its manifestations, and specifically, this involves handedness (Galamandjuk, 2015). The main feature of handedness is the dominance of one hand over the other in the case of a child selecting the one which will perform certain motor tasks with the highest quality. This leads to left-handedness, right-handedness, or the equivalence of both hands during a choice, which is also called ambidexterity (Gut, Urbanik, Forsberg, Binder, & Grabowska, 2007). Children with different handedness exhibit different degrees of cerebral hemisphere autonomy or cooperation of its cortical structures (Caliskan, & Dane, 2009; Gainotti, 2015). The children differ in their creativity and choice of strategy (Porac, 2016), their development of optical and visual-spatial functions (Rodrigues, Vasconcelos, Barreiros, Barbosa, & Trifilio, 2009; Corballis, 2010), and their ability to focus attention on a specific object, their speed of distribution and switching attention, and their amount of short-term, long-term, spontaneous and imaginative memory (Kuhl, & Kazen, 2005). The development of emotional and volitional qualities occurs more quickly in children with left-handedness than in children with right-handedness (Shabbott, & Sainburg, 2008), but the latter have a better developed psychomotor quality and spatial perception (Ramaley, 2012; Schaefer, Haaland, Sainburg, 2009). Data from Iedynak, Galamandjuk (2011), Galamandjuk (2014) shows that during the fourth year of age, boys with left-handedness reach significantly higher levels than boys with right-handedness regarding speed strength, coordination of cyclic locomotion, ballistic movements for maximum range and accuracy of throwing using the left hand. For boys with right-handedness, this level marked the development of coordination of ballistic movements for maximum range and accuracy of throwing via the right hand. Boys with ambidexterity reach higher levels than boys with right-handedness or left-handedness regarding coordination of ballistic movements at a maximum range by throwing using left and right hands. However, in the development of other physical qualities, ambidextrous boys have fewer differences with boys who are either right-handed or left-handed. (Galamandjuk, Balatska, Iedynak, 2014).

The differences in these and other functional performances is grounds for taking them into account during the planning of physical activity for children (Malina, Bouchard, Bar-Or, 2004; Gnitecka, Nowak, Romanowska-Tolloczko, 2015; Mysev, Iedynak, 2016). During the preschool period, children are taught to perform various movements in a way that is technically correct for that activity (Raiola, 2011; Schmidt & Lee, 2013; Buns, 2015). It is therefore advisable to take into account the child's handedness when studying the child's various movements (DeVries, Wimmers, Ververs, 2001). Moreover, despite the teaching methods, the child chooses convenient (wired) directions (right, left) of the arm (or leg) for performance during study (Pill, 2011; Di Tore, Schiavo, D'isanto, 2016). Wang and Sainburg (2007) recommend the performance of movements not only by leading the hand but also by non-conductive movements. This leads to activation of both hemispheres of the brain (Porac, 2016). One result of this activation is the development of different functions of each hemisphere (Volkmann, Schnitzler, Witte, & Freund, 1998). …

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