Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Endurance Performance and Stretch-Shortening Cycle in Two Male Amateur Soccer Teams - a Cross-Sectional Study

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Endurance Performance and Stretch-Shortening Cycle in Two Male Amateur Soccer Teams - a Cross-Sectional Study

Article excerpt

Introduction

Many research studies were conducted with professional soccer players or professional soccer players were compared with amateur soccer players. Kaplan et al. (2009) showed that in the shuttle run test, professional soccer players have significantly higher values than amateurs. Ostojic et al. (2004) found significant differences in favour of the professional soccer players regarding VO2max and maximal heart rate (HRmax) during 20 m shuttle run tests, as well as during the squat jump (SJ).

Arnason et al. (2004), Cometti et al. (2001), Ostojic (2004), Dellal et al. (2011), Le Gall et al. (2010) and Wisloff et al. (2004) evaluated differences in MVC, slow stretch-shortening cycle (S-SSC) and explosive strength respectively. In contrast, there is a lack of adequate information for reactive strength, which described the fast stretchshortening cycle (F-SSC). Güllich & Schmidtbleicher (1999) refer to reactive strength as a component of the rate of RFD. Reactive strength in the form of an F-SSC is also important in soccer (Reilly & Ekblom, 2005).

To our knowledge, appropriate studies are rare in amateur soccer players. Science has also to spread its knowledge to amateur sport. There is a lack of investigation protocols that describe which endurance strength components are to be measured and how these data must be collected. For this reason, and due to lack of data, it seems justified in this context to perform at first a study with amateur male soccer players to generate basis data for planning future studies. The aim of this study was 1) to test the feasibility of the investigation protocol and 2) to evaluate the endurance performance and the F-SSC between two amateur male soccer teams.

Material & methods

Participants

Twenty Swiss male amateur soccer players from a third division team (n=10; mean age: 24.04 ± 2.92 years) and fifth division team (n=10; mean age: 24.16 ± 3.81 years) voluntarily participated in this cross-sectional study. All the soccer players were recruited based on a) they had a minimum of eight years of training and weekend match day experience, and b) they trained in the evening, at least two days per week for an average of 90 minutes each time in addition to the weekend match, and c) were members of the same soccer team. Moreover, any players who experienced injuries, or missed 50% of training sessions were excluded from this study.

This study is consistent with the institutional ethical requirements for human experimentation in accordance with the latest version of the Declaration of Helsinki. All participants gave written informed consent.

Procedures

Two survey sessions were organized during the in-season soccer-training period on an outdoor training field. The first session was designed to collect the following anthropometric data (Table 1): Body height (tape rule, Stanley, Idstein, Germany), body weight (digital bathroom scale, Soehnle, Leifheit AG, Nassau, Germany).

The warm-up program for both test days was standardized and consisted of three minutes of running the 20 m distance back and forth at a set pace (i.e. 9.0 km/h) with the help of "beep" sounds. The surveys took place in the evening between 7-10 p.m. The same two investigators (MR, RS) performed all the measurements.

Outcome: measurements

To test the endurance performance, the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIRTL1) was applied (Krustrup et al., 2003). The test has an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.86 (Thomas, Dawson, & Goodman, 2006). The YYIRTL1 consisted of 20 m shuttle runs performed at increasing velocities with ten seconds of active recovery between runs until exhaustion.

A Myotest® device (Sion, Switzerland) was used to test the F-SSC with the PJT. The Myotest® device is a small electronic triaxial accelerometer which is fixed on a Velcro belt around the waist. The Myotest® device has very good reliability for F-SSC with an ICC of 0. …

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