Academic journal article Management : Journal of Contemporary Management Issues

Organizational Culture as a Predictor of Job Satisfaction: The Role of Age and Gender

Academic journal article Management : Journal of Contemporary Management Issues

Organizational Culture as a Predictor of Job Satisfaction: The Role of Age and Gender

Article excerpt

1. INTRODUCTION

Job satisfaction is among the most studied concepts in organizational studies. Job satisfaction is a multi- dimensional construct with a variety of definitions and related concepts which have been studied since the beginning of the 20th century. Smith (1969) suggested that job satisfaction can be categorized on the basis of individual's needs. Job satisfaction is defined as the sum total of individual's stance towards various job-related factors including work itself, supervisors, colleagues, working conditions, compensation and reward and recognition (Schultz et. al., 2003). Individuals are more satisfied when they feel that their abilities, values and experiences are adequately used in the organization (Buitendach and De Witte, 2005). Organizational culture has

become a widely researched topic in the last few years. Uttal (1983, p. 66) has defined organization culture as "a system of shared values (what is important) and beliefs (how things work) that interact with an organization 's people, organizational structures and control systems to produce behavioural norms ". Shein (1985, p. 6) explained organizational culture as "deeper level of basic assumptions and beliefs that are shared by members of an organization, that operate unconsciously and that define in a basic taken-for-granted fashion the organization's view of itself and its environment".

The primary reason for which job satisfaction has become such a heavily studied notion is its impact on various organizational outcomes such as commitment, performance and identification. Researchers have studied job satisfaction broadly in the context of an organization and on individual level, but the latter has received greater attention (Judge et al., 2002). Huang and Wu (2000), Odom et al. (1990) and Silverthorne (2004) have studied the impact of different types and dimensions of organizational culture on job satisfaction, but studies pertaining to organizational values and job satisfaction are rare. Thus, the current study attempts to explore the effects of various organizational values on job satisfaction. Organizational values, along with attitudes and norms, compose organizational culture (Schein, 1985). Employee's own personality, preferences and characteristics have a great impact on how they perceive organizational culture (Palthe and Kossek, 2003). Researches have also linked age, gender, job tenure and education to the job satisfaction of the employees (Moyes et al., 2006; Igbaria and Guimaraes, 1993). Therefore, the present study also investigates the influence of age and gender on the relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction.

2.LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1.Job satisfaction, organizational culture and their relationship

Researchers have always been interested in knowing the factors that influence the attitudes and the behaviour of the employees. Aiken et al. (2000) revealed working condition to affect the employee's attitude. Similarly, Verplanken (2004) suggested individual's values to be an important aspect shaping their perception towards organization. Therefore, organizational researchers have been interested in understanding the various organizational values that influence various job attitudes. Odam et al. (1990), in their study of organizational culture, job satisfaction and organizational commitment revealed that the individual's job satisfaction and organizational commitment is negatively affected by bureaucratic culture. Silverthorne (2004) concluded in his study that job satisfaction of the employees is impacted by the supportive organizational culture, innovative organizational culture and bureaucratic organizational culture, in descending order.

There has been a lack of consensus amongst researchers regarding the influence of cultural dimensions on job satisfaction. Huang and Wu (2000) found job satisfaction of the employees to be positively influenced by control & management, result orientation and professionalism. …

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