Academic journal article The Journal of Educational Research

Effect of Motivation, Willingness to Communicate (WTC), Self Perceived Communicative Competence (SPCC) and L2 Anxiety on the Frequency of Use of English as L2

Academic journal article The Journal of Educational Research

Effect of Motivation, Willingness to Communicate (WTC), Self Perceived Communicative Competence (SPCC) and L2 Anxiety on the Frequency of Use of English as L2

Article excerpt

Introduction

The present study was designed to measure the effect of motivation, willingness to communicate (WTC), L2 anxiety (ANX) and self-perceived communicative competence (SPCC) of the ESL learners on the frequency of use ESL for oral communication (FREQ). The main objective of the study is to discover the relationship and level of effectiveness among the above mentioned five variables which influence the teaching and learning of English as L2 and its use for oral communication. This study is based on the calculated value of mean, standard deviation, correlation coefficient and co-efficient of regression among the variables which influence the FREQ and will determine which of motivation, WTC, SPCC and Anx has comparatively more or less effect on the FREQ.

Pakistani ESL/ EFL Context

Coleman (2010) has mentioned following four types of educational institutions which are commonly found in Pakistan:

1. Private English medium institutions for the rich and powerful elite class

2. Private English Medium institutions for upper middle class

3. State run Urdu Medium institutions for the poor and lower middle class

4. Urdu Medium institutions for religious education known as Dini-madaris

Coleman stated that out of above mentioned four types of Pakistani educational institutions, the first type can be truly called English medium. These institutions are meant for the feudal and elite class children who can bear the expenses of these private English medium institutions. Including the second type of so-called private English medium institutions, the remaining three types of institutions are no doubt Urdu medium. Andrabi, Das, Vishwanath, and Khwaja (2009) clearly say that the second type of institutions merely bear the title of English medium institutions but the real picture shows that they have never been meant to be English medium institutions at all. As a result, the Pakistani ESL learners, cannot speak ESL proficiently especially for oral communicative purpose. Moreover, Ghani, Mahmood, and Akram (2008) have come to conclusion that in Pakistani ESL context, text based teaching of ESL is given undue importance "English language teaching has become text based in Pakistan" (p. 2). This undue emphasis on the text based teaching of ESL is a big obstacle for the successful teaching of spoken English.

Statement of the Problem

In the light of above mentioned arguments, ESL learners fall a prey to grammar and text based ESL teaching and learning environment. For them, the sole purpose of ESL learning is just passing the examination. According to Coleman (2010), in Pakistan, the ESL teaching and learning focus the written examination only. A lot of factors and circumstances are responsible for this failure of ESL learners in using English for oral communication. These factors can include improper system of syllabus designing, inappropriate evaluation system, lack of teaching material and proper facilities, improper teaching strategies and techniques, socio economic problems etc. The objective of this study is to focus some of the factors which are responsible for ESL learners' use of English as L2 for oral communication (FREQ). These factors are: motivation; WTC; SPCC and L2 use anxiety.

Research Questions

1. Does motivation affect the frequency of use of ESL for oral communication (FREQ)?

2. Does Willingness to Communicate (WCT) affect the frequency of use of ESL for oral communication (FREQ)?

3. Does self-perceived communicative competence (SPCC) affect the frequency of use of ESL for oral communication (FREQ)?

4. Does L2 anxiety affect the frequency of use of ESL for oral communication (FREQ)?

5. Which of the four factors i.e. motivation, WTC, SPCC and ANX have comparatively more or less potential to affect the FREQ?

Review of Related Literature

Motivation

It is difficult to define motivation in terms of a single definition because it is a concept that is very complex in its nature and composition. …

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