Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Air Ventilation Effects during the Stationary Roller Bicycle Test

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Air Ventilation Effects during the Stationary Roller Bicycle Test

Article excerpt

Introduction

Athletic performance results from the influence of multiple individual characteristics that in a greater or lesser degree, are required to excel in a given sport. Many of such traits (e.g. aerobic power, explosive strength or anaerobic capacity), apart from the effects of genes,, inevitably require a rigorous training and control regimen, particularly the selection of the best training load for a specific sport or activity (Costa et al., 2012).

Nowadays, sports training professionals use different devices for training control in an increasingly widespread way (Gardner, Martin, Martin, Barras, & Jenkins, 2007; Halson, 2014; Mroczek, Kawczynski, Superlak, & Chmura, 2013), particularly the portable and easy-to-use ones. The development and improvement of practical and accessible evaluation methods to accurately measure performance are thus issues of high interest for creating individual workout plans. However, training intensities are mostly determined under highly controlled conditions of laboratory testing with low ecological validity. As it comes to cycling, there are multiple real-time factors that interact with the performance. Weather conditions (Hayes, Castle, Ross, & Maxwell, 2014), road surface (Martin, Milliken, Cobb, McFadden, & Coggan, 1998) and altimetry (Menaspa. Abbiss, & Martin, 2012 are a few examples of variables that can limit performance and endanger the reliability of the parameters recorded. Furthermore, the absence of air-flow in the laboratory evaluation can probably affect the body thermoregulatory effectiveness, the heart rate response and, may lead to an inaccurate performance evaluation (Júnior & Denadai, 1996).

It has been well-established that more than 75% of the metabolic energy released during exercise by active muscles is converted into heat (Wenger, 2003). Thus, an air conditioner is crucial to maintain an ambient temperature around 19şC to 23şC, suitable to ensure good body core temperature. Nevertheless, even with a suitable room temperature, the effective control of body core temperature is considerably more complicated when performing a stationary exercise (such as for stationary rollers) (Van Schuylenbergh, Vanden Eynde, & Hespel, 2004a). In fact, in 15 to 20 minutes of intense exercise, the body's core temperature can reach values of concern, imposing a hyperthermia state, which can trigger fatigue symptoms and the early discontinuation of exercise (Gleeson, 2002). As in outdoor exercise, an inappropriate temperature along with high relative humidity may further exacerbate the problem. High humidity and dehydration are linked to a reduction of heat loss by sweat evaporation, which consequently causes an increase of body's core temperature and a rapid decline in performance (Galloway & Maughan, 1997; Wendt, van Loon, & Lichtenbelt, 2007). Périard et al. (2011) stated that a thermal strain on cardiovascular function is associated with reductions in sustainable power output and peak oxygen uptake during self-paced exercise in the heat. Thus, heat dissipation mechanisms are essential to permit good athletic performance.

The data presented by Ganio, Wingo, Carroll, Thomas, and Cureton (2006) are also in agreement, showing that exercising in high ambient temperatures (30şC) leads to a reasonable stage of dehydration and cause a decrease of around 9% in VO2max. Testing at higher room temperatures (30°C) with no air ventilation around the body impairs evaporative and convective heat dissipation, which can lead to significant changes in the physiological responses.

How physiological performance varies as the environment shifts between suitable environmentventilation and none air ventilation during a maximal isometric exercise is not clarified by the literature. Ventilation appears to be crucial in cycling stationary indoor exercises to secure proper heart rate training thresholds and metabolic load. Van Schuylenbergh, Vanden Eynde, and Hespel (2004b). …

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