Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Determinants of Contraceptive Use among Hausa Migrants in Selected Urban Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

Academic journal article Ife Psychologia

Determinants of Contraceptive Use among Hausa Migrants in Selected Urban Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

Article excerpt

Introduction

In achieving one of the goals of Millennium Development, Family planning programs has to be given high priority because of its direct impact on women's health and consequence of each pregnancies (Najafi-Sharjabad, Yahya, Rahman, Hanafiah & Manaf, 2013).

Despite the level of knowledge and awareness of various contraceptive methods among men and women of reproductive ages in African countries including Nigeria, fertility rate is still high in some of the countries in the region and which has called for the research focus among the populations. One of the key causes of fertility increase in the region is low contraceptive utilization among other causes. Low contraceptive utilization was reported having strong relationship with Cultural attitudes which varies among people of different tribes and races (Najafi-Sharjabad et al, 2013).

In Nigeria, there are more than three hundred tribes in the country and that cultural practises relating to sexual behaviour among the tribes differ (Adewuyi, 1988). Also, there are regional differences in their fertility rates, the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) in North East and North West which are predominantly Hausa domains are 6.3 and 6.7 respectively compared to 4.6 in southwestern part of the country which is dominated by Yorubas. Also, many of the proximate determinants of fertility such as median age at first marriage and first birth varied widely across these regions (NPC & ICF Macro, 2009; NPC and ICF International, 2014). It is expected that migration alters contraceptive behaviour of the migrants due to high prevalence of contraceptive use among the people in their destination. Through cultural assimilation and diffusion, it is also expected that the migrants adapts (Little & Baker, 1988) to the fertility behaviour of the host communities. Contrary to expectation, the migrants' contraceptive utilisation is low. It is therefore important to examine how culture and tribal affiliations affect contraceptive use of the migrants in the study area while comparing it with the usages in their place of origin.

The 2003, 2008 and 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey reveals that knowledge of any contraceptive method is widespread in Nigeria, with higher percentage of men and women knowing one or more methods of modern or traditional method but the prevalence rate of usage is low among Hausas.

Several factors were documented responsible for differences in contraceptive usage among the tribes and a lot of documentations have been made on the types, availability of contraceptives as well as causes and effects of non usage of contraceptives. Some socio economic factors highlighted by Bongaarts (2003) are residence, education, age and number of children ever born and alive being responsible for nonusage of contraceptive in the country. In the analysis of contraceptive behavior reported by United Nations (2006), ethnicity, age and education as well as several other variables were taken into account as factors that influence contraceptive behavior. Evidence from Nigeria Demographic and Health survey (2013) shows that what responsible for non-usage of contraceptives among the migrants (Hausas) in the country are residence, education and wealth status. A study conducted by Larsson & Stanfors in 2014 showed that women's education and empowerment are determinants of contraceptive use in Sub- Saharan Africa.

Literature Review

Contraceptives, as important as preventing fertility increase and reducing maternal mortality and morbidity was considered not worthwhile by some men and women of reproductive ages. Some even consider it as a means of making women weak and destroying men's libido. The pill was regarded as an unsafe method since women forget it and end up with unwanted pregnancies (Mbokane,2009). Previous studies on the determinants of contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa provided a good background for this research and which help in ascertain different conclusions. …

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