Academic journal article Journal of Political Studies

Multi-Polarity and Global Leadership

Academic journal article Journal of Political Studies

Multi-Polarity and Global Leadership

Article excerpt

Introduction

Contemporary world system creates more problems than it solves. There are a multitude of pretensions for global leadership imposed by different states, macro regions and civilizations. However, efforts to build well-balanced international cooperation framework cooperation have constantly failed. There is also a constant change in world power hierarchy. De-democratization processes within Western civilization have created new waves of crises in the Euro-Atlantic area, as well as in other regions of the world. The interdependence of global and national crises has become deeper and more unpredictable. The efforts of world leaders to tackle some of the problems rarely go beyond political rhetoric and hopeless agreements.

So, the need to rethink current global and local processes becomes more relevant and urgent. However, the reconsideration, which is based on old categories, formats and mechanisms, does not seem capable enough to solve contemporary global problems, to address current global challenges and to prevent the emergence of the new ones. And this is a fact - we have not been ready to manage it. For that reason, the global system needs a deep conceptual update based on the recent needs of the humanity.

The research arranged in a logical sequence, where first chapter is dedicated to the macro regions growth and global leadership issues; and the second is devoted to the analysis of civilizational interactions in the context of globalization. Therefore, the goal of this research concentrates on two key issues:

1. World balance of power: origins and consequences of the Euro-Atlantic crisis. Macro regions in the global system: difficulties and opportunities.

2. Civilization-based models of globalization: is there any efficient one for present developments? How national interests transform under the influence of globalization?

Methodology

It utilizes an integrated approach to analyse two thematic issues. Comparative method helped to highlight characteristics of different models of globalization. Meanwhile, the systemic method was used to investigate system of international relations and its basic elements, as well as to define the interaction between them within a global whole. Furthermore, the civilizational approach served to study different models of globalization and to analyse some conflicts in contemporary international relations. It was determined rising polarization of differences between civilizations can cause conflicts and initiate serious confrontations (Huntington, 1997: 21-27). The author of the clash of civilizations theory, Samuel Huntington, predicted that in the XXI century a new world order will be formed, which would not be based on ideological confrontation - as it was in the XX century - but on the inter-civilization one, with interreligious feature1. These findings were taken into account in this article, but stressed that nowadays there is an internal conflict within these civilizations, and it is the biggest challenge that modern international system faces.

Finally, the application of civilizational approach together with globalist approach, to complex research of large-scale global issues, helped to reflect a panorama of growing interdependence of countries and civilizations within a single global system.

I. Global Leadership and Grown Multi-polarity

a.The Euro-Atlantic Crisis

The information revolution actualized, strengthened and exacerbated the problems of global inter-civilization relations - interreligious, interethnic and intercultural dimensions. Migration flows diversified and became one of the most difficult challenges of contemporary globalization. Asia, Africa, Latin America and the new post-Soviet democracies have begun to defend and reaffirm actively their own interests, traditions and culture on the international arena (Bilorus, 2013: 6).

In the meantime, what has become increasingly clear today is the failure of the experiment to "export" the universal model of democracy as conceived in the Western civilization to another. …

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