Academic journal article Economics & Sociology

Gender and Sustainable Negotiation

Academic journal article Economics & Sociology

Gender and Sustainable Negotiation

Article excerpt

Introduction

Success of sustainable negotiations in many cases depends on gender stereotypes dominating in a particular society. Today women hold important positions in both private and public organizations. Such women are strong, determined, and capable of making the right decision. In 2010 the European Commission announced a 'Europe 2020' strategy which, inter alia, focuses on gender equality: a tendency has been noticed that the best financial results are demonstrated by organizations that demonstrate a balance between male and female employees.

Nowadays women more often lead teams, make plans along with other important decisions. They also strive for good results when collaborating with partners and take part in negotiations. However, what role does the gender play in the process of negotiation? How do opponents look at women in negotiations and does gender have impact on reaching a sustainable agreement? It is difficult to offer univocal answers to these questions.

Many authors have been analysing the art of negotiation: preparation for negotiation, behaviour and etiquette rules. Most of them provide general recommendations how to act in negotiations but they do not pay enough attention to gender differences, especially not enough interest is paid to the impact of women and their behaviour in negotiations. According to some authors (Robbins, 2015; Al Mazrouei and Krotov, 2017), personal traits do not influence the process of negotiation or end results.

The object of the paper is the importance of gender differences in sustainable negotiations.

The aim of the paper is to discuss the main gender behaviour differences in sustainable negotiation.

The methods of the research include the analysis of the related theoretical literature and interpretation of the research results concerning women's role and behaviour in sustainable negotiations.

1. Communication and behaviour

Economists using evidence from behavioral economics suggested a redirection of public policy from supply side to demand side measures (Poortinga et al., 2004; Abrahamse, 2003; Brekke et al., 2008; Dietz et al., 2009; or Abrhám et al., 2015). Very practical examples of using behavioral understandings to inform policy include the design of sustainable development plans and improving the reliability of identification in policy lineups. In addition, behavioral economics plays important in modern economic research (Steg, 2008; Reusswig, 2010; Dwyer et al., 1993). The user behavior is dependent on information, motivation and responsibility. All these factors have to be addressed by several instruments like incentives in communication and negotiation.

Communication is a complicated phenomenon. It is obvious that every participant is important in the system of communication, environment and the most important role is attributed to the space of developing interaction, because this is where sustainable perception and mutual understanding is created, synergetic effect is created.

Synergetic effect is created by uniting the advantages of different communicants. If the message of public relations is accepted by the consumers, they believe in it, advertising allows to inform and to teach mass auditorium about how to use product or item, sales promotion encourages the consumers to purchase, and all this is used together - there is a possibility to achieve all at once. Synergetic effect enables to eliminate the vices of each communicant and to develop sustainable communication.

When explaining the concept of communication, the process of exchanging information is stressed. This process can happen not only in the society, but also in other systems, e. g., in biological, technical etc. Meanwhile in the definitions of interaction the building of a relation between two people is stressed, and not the exchange of information. According to definitions, communication can happen between two cells, e. g. exchange of genetic information, while interaction between the cells is impossible. …

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