Academic journal article Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health

Temporal Relationships between Job Strain and Low-Back Pain

Academic journal article Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health

Temporal Relationships between Job Strain and Low-Back Pain

Article excerpt

Low-back pain remains a major public health concern generating large healthcare costs and productivity losses (1). Low-back pain is the leading cause of years lived with disability globally (2, 3). Over 60-70% of all individuals may experience problems with back pain at some point in their life (4). The work environment in which many people spend a large part of their lives, may influence whether an individual develops disabling musculoskeletal problems, including low-back pain (5). A great deal of research has recognized the importance of physical working conditions for the development of low-back pain (5). People with physically demanding work seem to develop more back problems than others, eg, those with manual labor including heavy lifts, with twisted or bent positions, kneeling or squatting or who are exposed to vibrations (5). A number of studies indicate that also psychosocial factors may be of relevance (5-7). Studies with a longitudinal design that take earlier symptoms into account indicate causal associations between, eg, high job demands and low job control, job strain (the combination of high job demands and low control), as well as low support at work and low-back pain (6, 7). However, the evidence for psychosocial factors is generally weaker, and it has been questioned whether these associations represent causal associations or are due to bias or confounding (7).

To rule out that unmeasured third variables explain the associations between psychosocial work factors and low-back pain, some scholars recommend cross-lagged analyses based on repeat measures (7). These types of analyses may also shed light on the causal direction of the associations, which remains uncertain (7). Crosslagged analyses cannot, however, completely rule out the influence of individual differences (8). It is possible that genetic or earlier life experiences can confound these type of associations. Studies have shown that there is a relatively high heritability of disabling low-back pain (9) and that a weak constitution is a risk factor (10).

This study aimed to increase the knowledge about temporal relationship between job strain and low-back pain by examining whether there are lagged and bidirectional associations between the two. In addition, we aimed to rule out confounding from time-invariant characteristics.

Methods

Study population

The study population consisted of participants in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) study, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort survey focusing on work life participation, social situation, and health/wellbeing. SLOSH started in 2006 with a first follow-up of participants in the Swedish Work Environment Survey (SWES) 2003 (N=9214), containing individuals from the entire country stratified by county, citizenship, gainfully employed, and 16-64 years of age at the time of enrolment into SWES. About two years later, all eligible SWES participants were followed-up by means of postal self-completion questionnaires, one addressed to people in work, ie. those in gainful employment for >30% of full time, and one to people working less or who had left the labor force temporarily or permanently (11). All SWES participants from 2003 who were still alive, with a known address in Sweden, and who had not actively opted out, were asked to complete questionnaires again in 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014, and 2016. In 2008, all participants in SWES 2005 were added to the cohort (raising the number of cohort members to 18 917) to be followed up every second year, see figure 1. The present study is based on those SWES 2003 and 2005 participants who responded and were working in all four waves (2010-2016), in total 3084 individuals. Only data from 2010 and onwards was used since low-back pain was not assessed in the same way in earlier waves. Some characteristics of the 3084 included participants are presented in table 1. The Regional Research Ethics Board in Stockholm approved the study and informed consent was obtained from all participants. …

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