Academic journal article Reading Horizons (Online)

Exploring Effective Professional Development Strategies for In-Service Teachers on Guiding Beginning Readers to Become More Metacognitive in Their Oral Reading

Academic journal article Reading Horizons (Online)

Exploring Effective Professional Development Strategies for In-Service Teachers on Guiding Beginning Readers to Become More Metacognitive in Their Oral Reading

Article excerpt

In our current educational climate, teachers are required to demonstrate increased student performance in reading, sometimes at the expense of developing an inner awareness and self-regulation of learning (Borkowski, 1992; Brandmo & Berger, 2013; R. Fisher, 2002; Gonzalez-DeHaas & Willems, 2016; Yu, 2013). Teachers ask students questions centered on recalling story content rather than questions looking for answers that demonstrate a more comprehensive, inferential understanding of the nuances of the story and the author's intent. However, the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts (CCSS; National Governors Association Center for Best Practices [NGA Center] & Council of Chief State School Officers [CCSSO], 2010) ask students to go beyond literal recall to a deeper level of comprehension, in which students evaluate text structure and author positions.

Reading is more than accumulating a set of mechanical skills to accurately pronounce words; it is the acquisition of a deeper understanding and evaluation of a text's message, and involves metacognitive awareness and problem solving (Duke & Pearson, 2002; Elosua, Garcia-Madruga, Vila, Gomez-Veiga, & Gil, 2013; Sprainger, Sandral, & Ferrari, 2011; Wade, 1990). Essentially, reading is a strategic process in which readers become metacognitively aware of what they are thinking as they read, as well as a process of learning how to use strategies to improve their understanding (Goodman, Martens, & Flurkey, 2016; Schmitt, 2011). Self-monitoring and self-correcting during oral reading are strong indicators of beginning readers' development of critical metacognitive strategies and should be a part of any early literacy curriculum (Bergeron & Bradbury-Wolf, 2010; Kragler, Martin, & Schreier, 2015).

Literature Review

Drawing on research that supports reading as a strategic process involving metacognitive awareness and problem solving (Duke & Pearson, 2002; Wade, 1990), our research design is grounded in the theoretical framework of metacognition as we investigated (a) teacher beliefs about facilitating beginning readers' development and (b) effective professional development that considers the teachers' needs in relation to the students' needs as they relate to metacognition and beginning readers. Using the ideas of Flavell (1979) and Baker and Brown (1984), we define metacognition in reading as the knowledge and regulation a reader has over his or her own thinking activities, using strategies. Metacognitive strategies are "routines and procedures that allow individuals to monitor and assess their ongoing performance in accomplishing a cognitive task" (Elosua et al., 2013, p. 1429). Understanding what various reading strategies involve (declarative), how to execute these strategies (procedural), and when and why a strategy should be employed (conditional) are three aspects involved in constructing metacognition while reading (Paris, Lipson, & Wixson, 1983). When readers learn to consciously apply metacognitive strategies during reading, they come to understand how reading works and how to identify and repair comprehension breakdowns (Afflerbach, Cho, Kim, Crassas, & Doyle, 2013; Afflerbach, Pearson, & Paris, 2008).

Whereas some research indicates metacognition increases with age (Baker & Brown, 1984; Flavell, 1979; Paris, Wasik, & Turner, 1991; Yaden, 1984), findings reveal even young readers are able to independently control variables related to themselves, their reading, and the text (Bergeron & Bradbury-Wolf, 2010; Brenna, 2011; Goodman et al., 2016; Juliebo, Malicky, & Norman, 1998; Kragler et al., 2015; Martin & Kragler, 2011; Schmitt, 2001). Clay (1991) and Schmitt (2011) describe early strategic reading as involving three processes: (1) self-monitoring to determine if spoken text makes sense, (2) problem solving to work on confusions or inaccuracies, and (3) self-correcting to fix reading miscues. …

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.