Academic journal article Economics & Sociology

Regional Disparities in Labor Force Migration Abroad in Slovak Republic and in Czech Republic

Academic journal article Economics & Sociology

Regional Disparities in Labor Force Migration Abroad in Slovak Republic and in Czech Republic

Article excerpt

Introduction

Experts today define labor migration in much wider contexts. Labor migration can be viewed from several perspectives. We can talk about migration for work purposes when the place of residence is changed, and also about those types of labor migration when residence remains unchanged. Here we can include seasonal migration, especially among farm workers who go abroad for seasonal work. Another type of labor migration can be circular migration, in which change of the permanent place of residence does not occur, it is actually about overcoming the distance between home and place of work or study. These are mostly daily or weekly movements of citizens with the work or study purposes (Jurčová, 2008; Thomas, 2016; Divinský, 2005; Vojtovič, 2013; Strielkowski, Bilan, 2016).

Labour migration can have both negative and positive impacts, both in the country of origin and the country of immigration. To the negative impacts of labor migration we can include brain drain, for example. Particularly developing countries are losing a lot due to this leakage of highly qualified workforce, these countries have spent a lot on education of young people, and later the young leave the country after graduation, thus those countries are losing the potential benefits from these educated people could create. In this case, we can talk about the negative impacts of labor migration, which represent obvious economic losses for the country. It should also be noted that this is a very serious problem, because educated and highly skilled population is the key to success and prosperity for the country and it is also to some extent the reflection of a certain level of country's development (Bartolini et al, 2017; Fitzpatrick, Jones, 2016).

We think it is very interesting to examine regional differences in the labor force and therefore we focus on the comparison of regional differences in Slovakia and Czech Republic in the present study. These countries are very close in terms of mentality and life style.

This is a positive fact that the workforce rapidly integrates and adapts to the way of life and it is involved in the production of goods and services within Czech economy. There is a lack labor force in almost all sectors in Czech economy these days. This phenomenon of labor shortage appeared in Slovakia too, back in 2016, moreover, Bratislava region began to create competition to Czech labor market and working conditions in some sectors are becoming today even more attractive. Development of migration flows is difficult to predict currently because significant impact will surely have the upcoming exit of the Great Britain from the European Union.

Development of both Slovak and Czech societies today has positive and negative aspects. The negatives mostly concern the process of leaving skilled labor, especially in the category of university educated people as well as among certain blue-collar professions. Slovak Republic has not been sufficiently prepared for this phenomenon. For example, till now there are no integration programs for returning labor force to Slovak labor market. This problem become especially pressing at the time of ongoing financial and economic crisis (Fendel, 2016).

At the same time, Slovak Republic has one of the most dynamic index of aging in the EU and if the trends of labor migration to Czech Republic continue to develop with the same pace as before it will have a very negative impact not only on the economy but also on social development in Slovakia. The attractiveness of Czech labor market can be explained by the minimum distance from Slovak Republic, and also by the absence language barrier which also indirectly means that social integration in a new venue takes place very quickly.

1. Methodological approach

For these reasons, it is necessary to examine any relation of labor emigration to Czech Republic. In identifying the hypotheses, we used the research objective of mapping and comparing regional differences in labor migration between Czech and Slovak Republics. …

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