Academic journal article Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology

Factor Structure of the Hewitt Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (HMPS) in Young Indian Adults

Academic journal article Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology

Factor Structure of the Hewitt Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (HMPS) in Young Indian Adults

Article excerpt

Perfectionism is described as a need for achievement of the highest standards of performance, along with unduly critical evaluations of one's performance (Frost, Marten, Lahart & Rosenblate, 1990).

It is a multidimensional construct with both adaptive and maladaptive aspects and various studies have reported the association of maladaptive perfectionism with psychological disorders (Bardone-Cone, 2007; Enns & Cox, 2005; Frost & DiBartolo, 2002, Jain & Sudhir, 2010). Early theories on development of perfectionism are categorized into models of social expectations, social learning, social reaction model and the anxious rearing model and these models are situated in the context of parent-child interactions (and emphasize on the role of contingent parental approval, modeling, and internalization of high standards for performance (Flett & Hewitt, 2003; Vieth & Trull 1999).

Several measures of perfectionism have been developed over the last three decades, such as Burn's Perfectionism Scale, Frost's Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Hewitt Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Almost Perfect Scale (Burns, 1980, Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990; Hewitt & Flett, 1991; Hewitt, Flett, Turnbull-Donovan, & Mikhail, 1992; Slaney, Rice Mobely, Trippi & Ashby, 2001). Of these measures, the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scales by Frost et al., (1990) and Hewitt (Hewitt & Flett, 1991) have received the greatest research attention. There is a considerable overlap between these two measures with respect to dimensions of personal standards and self-oriented perfectionism and parental expectations and criticism and socially prescribed perfectionism (Frost, Heimberg, Holt, Mattia & Neubaer, 1993). Of the six dimensions of the Frost's Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), four are considered to be self-oriented. These include excessively high personal standards, excessive concern over mistakes in performance, doubting the quality of one's performance and an exaggerated emphasis on order, organization, and precision. The other two aspects are interpersonal and reflect the perceived presence of parental demands on the self. They are 'high parental expectations' and 'parental criticism'.

While several recent studies have examined the factor structure of the Frost's Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (FMPS), there is relatively less research on the factor structure of the Hewitt Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (HMPS). The three dimensions on the HMPS, self-oriented (SOP), other-oriented (OOP) and socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) measure intra and interpersonal dimensions (Hewitt & Flett, 1991) and have been associated with various forms of psychopathology (Hewitt, Flett, & Ediger, 1996; Hewitt, Newton, Flett & Callander, 1997; O'Connor & O'Connor, 2003; Enns & Cox, 2005). The sub-scales have also been examined independently of each other (Bardone-Cone, 2007).

Hewitt and Flett (1991) defined perfectionism as a three-dimensional construct comprising selforiented, other-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism. Self-oriented perfectionism involves the self-directed thoughts about perfectionistic behaviours. Other-oriented perfectionism involves beliefs and expectations about the capabilities of others. Socially prescribed perfectionism is defined as the belief that others hold expectations from oneself to be perfect. (Hewitt & Flett, 1992).

The significance of perfectionism in both clinical and non-clinical populations has been established in Indian studies, using the FMPS (Jain & Sudhir, 2009, Kumari, Sudhir & Mariamma 2012; Systla, Sudhir, Bada Math 2014; Jayakumar, Sudhir, & Mariamma, 2016).

While studies examining the construct of perfectionism have reported the reliability and validity of these multi-dimensional measures, only a few published studies report the factor structure of these measures across different cultures and samples (Harvey, Pallant & Harvey 2004, Khwaja & Armstrong, 2005). …

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