Academic journal article Researchers World

Javanese Diaspora and Adapted Ecology of Java Ethnic in Simalungun North Sumatra

Academic journal article Researchers World

Javanese Diaspora and Adapted Ecology of Java Ethnic in Simalungun North Sumatra

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION:

The cause behind the increased interest among migrant workers being employed in the tea plantation is due to less interest among the local community to work as labourer. Wage factor in the sector of the lower plantation is under consideration of the local community to pursue job opportunity outside the agriculture (Angelson and Kaimowitz, 1999; Ahluwalia, 1995). According to the village secretary of Sait Buttu Saribu, the tea plantation in Simalungun provide chances of work opportunities to migrants from Java (Central and East Java). The immigrants work as laborers with a contract system. After the contract expires, ost of them keep settling in Simalungun until now. There is an influence between the plantation area and the mobility of community (O'Malley, 1988).

According to Putnam (2002), there are three elements of social capital namely network, trust and norm. Migrant of Java to outside Java by utilizing kinship network, the network is one of the elements of social capital. Social capital, intensively appeared in the 1900's along with the works of France Fukuyama, Christian Grootaert, Deepa Narayan and so on. Portes (1995) also expressed the importance of this network. "Social network are among the most important types of structures in which economic transactions are embedded....Networks are important in economic life because they are sources for acquisition of scarce means, such as capital and info rmation, and because they simultaneously impose effective constraints on the unrestricted pursuit of personal gain." (Portes, 1995).

Javanese ethnic has diaspora in Simalungun utilizing the relationship kinship network. The philosophy of "gemi nastiti ngati ati" and success in the process of adaptation to the ecology causing Java ethnic to experienc vertical mobility. The research questions are:

1. How is the process of the Javanese diaspora in Simalungun?

2. How is the dynamic of life and vertical mobility of Java ethnic in Simalungun?

3. How is the process of adaptation to the ecology made in by Java etchnics in Simalungun?

This research has 3 (three) purposes. First, to depict process being followed of Javanese diaspora in Simalungun. Second, to depict the dynamic of life and vertical mobility experienced by Javanese ethcnis in Simalungun. Third, to know about the process of adaptation to the Javanese ethnics within the different environment from the origin (Central Java and East Java).

LITERATURE REVIEW:

Javanese Diaspora:

Study on Javanese diaspora is not a new thing. The classical works of Utomo K (1957) which can explain how the Javanese diaspora occurs. However, it is different from Elmhirst (2000) who discussed Javanese diaspora through gender approach and identity politic in the transmigration program of Java ethnic in North Lampung. Javanese diaspora occurred in Simalungun was divided into strategic framework for the ecology adaptation of Java ethnic in Simalungun different from the region of origin (Central Java and East Java).

Some experts such as Pelzer (1963) and Geertz (1963) said that the lands in Java Bali would be more fertile compared to those of in Sumatera, Kalimantan, Sulawesi up to Jaya Pura, but people in Java Island are extremely dense. The findings of Rusli et al (2010), Java Island has been overpopulated and are evaluated to have passed the capability to provide the biological life elements. The density of the people caused the migration of people from Java to outside Java,, such as to Simalungun North Sumatra. But, it is different from the finding of Rusli et al (2010), the transmigration of Java ethnic to Simalungun was more caused by the economy factor (economy) in the region of origin (East Java and Central Java).

The results of research conducted by Rusli et al (2010) through the approach of pressure index of the people to show that Sumatra island with the area of 1,800 kilometer in length and 400 kilometer in width has index showing the figure of 0,8 meaning that Sumatra island can still accommodate the people of 53. …

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