Academic journal article International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education

The Effect of the 5E Instructional Model Enriched with Cooperative Learning and Animations on Seventh-Grade Students' Academic Achievement and Scientific Attitudes *

Academic journal article International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education

The Effect of the 5E Instructional Model Enriched with Cooperative Learning and Animations on Seventh-Grade Students' Academic Achievement and Scientific Attitudes *

Article excerpt

Introduction

Knowledge is constantly expanding in the information age and as a consequence modern societies are constantly changing. Intensive scientific studies have focused on finding new methods and techniques in education to improve learning and instruction (Çavaş & Huyugüzel-Çavaş, 2014). Turkey has in the past obtained relatively poor results in comparative international exams such as PISA, TIMMS and PIRLS in the field of mathematics and science. New approaches were introduced as a result of perceived failures in the curriculum and teaching approaches (Cengiz, 2014; Küçükyılmaz, 2014). Particular attention was given to changes in curricula and teaching methods for science courses. With this aim, views on science curricula were evaluated and international literature on science education was reviewed. Science curricula successfully implemented in developed countries were closely examined and incorporated into the new design, taking account of the conditions in different regions of Turkey (MEB, 2004). Taking into account educational research into how students learn science and the conditions which best promote science learning, it is evident that new understandings of the teachinglearning process and the learning environment must be embraced, and new teaching strategies developed (Cengiz, 2014). Science education research studies carried out in recent years emphasize that constructivist learning theory provides a useful and functional framework from which to attain the goals of science education and brings new practices to instruction (MEB, 2006). Constructivism is a learning theory which states essentially that a learner constructs knowledge and applies it (Karadağ & Korkmaz, 2007). The most effective model of constructivist learning theory is the 5E instructional model, which consists of five phases: Engage, explore, explain, elaborate, and evaluate. The 'engage' phase of the 5E model provides students with the opportunity to be aware of their own thoughts in relation to ideas on any concept. To achieve this, the teacher begins the lesson with an introduction which raises curiosity. In this phase, he or she raises questions about the phenomenon. What is important for students is to assert new ideas, but not to know the correct answers. In the 'explore' phase, students work individually or with a group. They carry out experiments, explore scientific knowledge via computer, video or in a library environment with the guidance of the teachers, or they generate solutions to problems. In the 'explain' phase of the model, students try to describe and explain the situation, phenomenon, or concept chosen under the guidance of the teacher. In this phase, the teacher encourages students to replace their incomplete or incorrect knowledge with correct scientific knowledge. In the 'elaborate' phase, students apply new learning to a new or similar situation and problem. Thanks to this phase, they learn new concepts which have not existed before. In the 'evaluate' phase of the model, the teacher observes students' behaviour and asks them questions as they solve problems. Moreover, the teacher encourages students to assess their own learning as they explore and apply new concepts and skills (Cengiz, 2014; Çepni, Akdeniz & Keser, 2000; Korkmaz & Karadağ, 2007; Turgut et al., 1997). Different studies revealed that the 5E instructional model had positive effects on students' academic achievement and also promoted students' meaningful learning (Ağgül-Yalçın & Bayrakçeken, 2010; Chen, 2008; Ceylan & Geban, 2009; Kanlı et al., 2007; Klavuz, 2005; Seyhan & Morgil, 2007).

Raghavan, Sartoris & Glaser (1998) state that some students need more time and greater variety of experience in the environment to learn meaningfully and to provide reasonable responses at higher levels (as cited in Şahin & Çepni, 2012). Different teaching techniques can be used to realize this. One of these is the enriched 5E model, which research studies revealed was a suitable teaching method as it can be used in conjunction with other teaching methods and techniques (Orgill & Thomas, 2007; Sahin, Calik & Cepni, 2009; Sahin & Çepni; 2012; Türk & Çalık, 2008; Ürey & Çalık, 2008 ). …

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