Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

The Effect of Feedback on Serve and Bump Skills Training in Volleyball

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

The Effect of Feedback on Serve and Bump Skills Training in Volleyball

Article excerpt

Introduction

Learning is a continuous process which aims to change the behavioral consequences to reinforced repetitions. It is also a skill that includes various processes depending on highly complex and different variables. One of the most vital factors in regulation of training process that enables learning is the feedback provided to the learner parallel to his/her performance. Feedback is considered as a pivotal variable to determine the level of learning acquisition (Salmoni, Schmidt, & Walter, 1984).

The role and the importance of feedback, which has an unquestionable place in education, is a subject matter of many debates. In this context, many researchers have focused on studies about the role and the effects of feedback in developing the learning skills and learners' performance (Morya, Ranvaud, & Pinheiro, 2003). Feedback is not a process that is merely applicable on its own, yet it involves various concepts such as reinforcements, awards, result information, etc. (R. Schmidt & Wrisberg, 2000).

The iinformation about the consequences of action (movement) is called as feedback. There are different kinds of feedback such as extrinsic feedback, intrinsic feedback, knowledge of result (KR), and knowledge of performance (KP). Extrinsic feedback refers to the one that is received from extrinsic sources and is added or enhancing the intrinsic feedback of the individual (R. Magill, 2004). Intrinsic feedback is the sensory feedback that an individual naturally experiences during and after the movement (R. Magill, 2004). Intrinsic feedback is provided while many motor tasks are performed or come up with their completion. Knowledge of result (KR) refers to extrinsic verbal feedback that informs the learner about the success of the movement in line with the environmental goals. If extrinsic feedback is given as KR, then the quick and permanent learning is realized (R. A. Schmidt, 1991); (R. Schmidt, Wrisberg, Schmidt, & Wrisberg, 2008). Knowledge of performance (KP) is the information about the way the movement is made that leads to the result of the performance (R. A. Magill & Anderson, 2007). Information related about the movement or movement patterns constitutes the KP.

One of the most widely used methods for teaching a new skill to students is the implementation of the verbal expression (R. Schmidt & Lee, 1999). Verbal feedback, provided by the teacher, helps the learner to decide what to do in the next trial and gives an idea about the quality of the displayed skill (R. A. Schmidt, 2008) (R. Schmidt & Wrisberg, 2000). While teaching happens, generally verbal or written information would be given as the fundamental aspect of the skill. This approach includes the information addressing how to perform (group activity, contest etc.), which kind of tools will be used (ball, etc.), how they will be used, and, also, the specific details or instructions regarding the skill of the posture of the body, etc. (Austermann Hula, Robin, Maas, Ballard, & Schmidt, 2008). Another classification refers to the way the extrinsic feedback is presented. This classification is in the form of verbal or visual feedback. Verbal feedback can be given through a movement, touch, material presentation or speaking. There are four kinds of verbal feedback in physical education and sports training: corrective expressions, value expressions, objective expressions and indefinite expressions (Mosston & Ashworth, 2002). Visual feedback can be provided by the teacher him/herself or by a video-film or a model. The most efficient and intensive method is through the video. Video recordings are used to show the specific skill to the learner during the learning process. The feedback is provided via the recorded image (Pellett & Harrison, 1995).

According to the studies conducted with respect to the effect of verbal feedback and visual feedback on achievement, visual feedback through video use is more effective than the verbal feedback when the achievement is considered (Badami, VaezMousavi, Wulf, & Namazizadeh, 2012). …

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