Academic journal article Library Philosophy and Practice

Gender Variations in Research Productivity: Insights from Scholarly Research

Academic journal article Library Philosophy and Practice

Gender Variations in Research Productivity: Insights from Scholarly Research

Article excerpt


The world has been dominated by men since its inception. However, the advocacy of women empowerment has taken a strong movement all over the world. Policies on women's empowerment exist at the international, national, state, and local levels in many sectors, including education, employment, health, and politics. However, there are significant gaps between policy advancements and their actual implementation at the ground level. The women participation in all these fields is still limited.

Research Design

Purpose of the study

The variations in research productivity between men and women available in the scholarly world have always attracted interest of researchers across the globe. The present study aims to identify the differences in research productivity, patent creation, funding, collaboration, citation and impact between men and women across regions and disciplines over a period of time.

Although females are improving their position in the academic and scholarly world, their contribution needs to be studied at regular intervals to pinpoint the change. The study is a step forward in this regard.


The comprehensive literature survey was conducted in various online databases and search tools like Web of Science, Taylor and Francis Online, Jstor, Google Scholar etc. to observe the trend in order to reveal the findings. However, few articles were also collected offline from current and back volumes of journals.

Gender Variations in Research

a) Women Representation

Men researchers are significantly higher than women in all the research fields especially Engineering (Glover 2002; Kulis, Sicotte & Collins, 2002), Technology (Mauleón & Bordons 2010), Math-intensive fields (Ceci & Williams 2010) and Nano Science and Technology (Sotudeh & Khoshian, 2013). Women represent one-third of research workers in European nations raised from one-sixth of research workers in 2006 He further pointed out that the number of female heads of higher education institutions rose from 15.5 % in 2010 to 20 % in 2014 (European Commission, 2016). More and more, European women are excelling in higher education, and yet, there is clearly still a long way to go before we reach gender equality in European research and innovation professions. Schiffbänker (2009) more recently depicted that on management and executive boards; less than 6% of the positions are held by women, while on scientific boards, only 10% are female researchers. The women representation in higher education institutions is not satisfactory. Many reasons are responsible for their under-representation. Oliveira & Carvalho (2009) found that there are lower percentages of women with PhDs in most of the countries and therefore, have less chance to be recruited in the higher educational institutions. More recent data showed that the performance gap has been closed for Ph.D. students (Ceci et al. 2014).

There is also an issue of gender bias in academic recruitment and selection, leading to lower success rates of female applicants (Van den Brink, Brouns, & Waslander, 2006; Van den Brink 2009). Zinovyeva & Bagues (2010) confirmed not only men-against-women but women-againstwomen discriminations. They argued that the presence of female evaluators at promotion committees for choosing applicants qualified for associate/professor positions was likely to reduce female applicants' chances, while increasing the possibility of males' success. Long & Fox (1995) observed that in the academic setting, women in research universities occupy lower academic ranks. Ginther & Kahn (2006) revealed that women succeed less often in getting tenure or promote to a professor. Danell & Hjerm (2012) found out that in spite of policies aiming to increase the proportion of Swedish female professors, they are still disproportionate to males in achieving a professorship, and their situation is not improving over time. …

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