Academic journal article South Asian Journal of Management

Impact of Spiritual Quotient on Attitude towards Duty and Job Satisfaction: A Study on Employees in the Banking Sector in India

Academic journal article South Asian Journal of Management

Impact of Spiritual Quotient on Attitude towards Duty and Job Satisfaction: A Study on Employees in the Banking Sector in India

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Attitudes of employees are significant for the organizations because these become the basis for their future behavior. It has been found by many researchers that employees, who hold negative attitudes, generally demonstrate negative behavior and vice-versa. Attitudes of employees have a direct impact upon individual and organizational productivity, absenteeism, commitment, employee's turnover rate and withdrawal behaviour. Stephen, Timothy and Sanghi (2009), believe that "attitudes are formed by information/cognition and affect". Spirituality, by providing the ultimate awareness regarding self, the universe, meaning and purpose of life, may transform one's attitude and thus one's behavior too.

Chardin claims that "all human beings are spiritual beings on the journey of human life" (as cited in Mamin, 2008). Being spirits (non- physical), human beings cannot take anything along, in the physical form, at the time of death of their physical body. Sri Guru Granth Sahib has made it clear that "abandoning the world of beauty, and beautiful clothes, one must depart". The 4th discourse in Bhagavad Gita (Chadha, 2007) also explains that whatever one gets in the form of possessions or relations in this life, has to be lefthere only. Hence one must not keep on accumulating unnecessary wealth and material possessions in life. Rather one should live a productive, meaningful and a life of sacrifice by adopting an ethical behavior comprising love, truthfulness, forgiveness (20:28), self-control (28:15), righteousness (16:12) compassion (29:23), moderation (31:4-5) (Proverbs in New Testament).

The spiritual information, if believed and adopted in life, can lead to development of attitudes in one's personality which may get reflected in the form of higher level of commitment, honesty, higher inclination for learning and growth, service to the society and higher contentment level (Neck and Milliman, 1994; Neal, 2000; Kumar and Neck, 2002; Fry, 2003; Giacalone and Jurkiewicz, 2003; and McGhee and Grant 2008). A number of empirical studies have also found that job satisfaction which is an important area in human resource management is significantly related to commitment (Chawla and Guda, 2010), learning opportunities and potential utilization (Chun, 2009; Chen and Silverthorne, 2005; Wang, 2007; Zeffane et al., 2008; Hanan, 2008; Westover et al., 2010; and Biswas and Verma, 2011). Positive attitude of employees may result into a higher level of job satisfaction to them and a higher level of job satisfaction can result into many favorable organizational outcomes. The purpose of this research paper is to investigate whether spirituality of employees has any relationship with their "Attitude Towards Duty (ATD)" and job satisfaction in any way or not?

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

SPIRIT, SPIRITUALITY AND SPIRITUAL QUOTIENT (SQ)

While going through the literature, it has been observed that the previous researchers and authors, have not drawn, any clear distinction among the three terms-Spiritual Intelligence, Spiritual Quotient and Spirituality. These terms have been used by them interchangeably. Undoubtedly these three terms comprise a common word called 'spirit' which gives an indication that the major subject matter of all these terms is spirit.

According to Oxford Dictionary, "the term spirit refers to that part of a person which consists of one's character and feelings rather than one's body and is often believed to survive after one's body is dead". In Christianity, the word 'Nephesh' has been used for the non physical substance, generally known as spirit, which is immortal, formless and provides vitality to the organisms. No controversy exists amongst the religions: Hinduism; Christianity; Buddhism; Islam; Jainism; Taoism and Sikhism over the belief that it is this formless, immortal substance, called spirit/nephesh/ consciousness/ soul, the presence of which makes the body functional and absence of which leaves the body dead. …

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