Academic journal article International Journal of Business and Society

Muslim Attitude towards Participation in Cash Waqf: Antecedents and Consequences

Academic journal article International Journal of Business and Society

Muslim Attitude towards Participation in Cash Waqf: Antecedents and Consequences

Article excerpt


Waqf, in the Arabic language, means to stop, contain, or preserve. In Islamic terms, waqf is an act of holding certain property and preserving it for the confined benefit of certain philanthropy that disallows any use or disposition of it outside the specific objective (Kahf, 1998). Waqf is permissible in Islamic law and it is a recommended practice in the light of al-Quran and Hadith. Waqf creates great benefits not only for the endower himself/herself but also for the whole society. It plays an important role in economic development by providing health facilities, education and worship places (Rahman, 2009).

Two types of prominent waqf are immovable property ('aqar) and movable property (manqui) (Rahman, 2009). In 2007, the Malaysian National Fatwa Council decided that cash waqf is allowed in Islam (Rahman, 2009). With this ruling, the Muslim community in Malaysia is allowed to participate in cash waqf. Cash raised may be used to finance specific or planned projects, and separate cash waqf may be raised for each individual waqf activity. According to Osman et al. (2012), cash waqf has the potential to promote the development of the ummah. The author estimated that the cash waqf collection in Malaysia could reach USD1.1 billion a year if each adult Muslim Malaysian citizen donated USD0.25 a day or USD7.5 a month to the cash waqf fund.

Even though cash waqf has been implemented in Malaysia for a number of years and has the potential to promote the development of the ummah, its development in Malaysia is still in its infancy (Osman et al., 2012). The cash waqf schemes of general purpose known as ' waqf al am ' have still not generated sufficient funds of scale to carry out programs with impact (Alias, 2011). In addition, as Magda (2009) reported, even though the amount of cash waqf collected is considerable, there is still a lack of endower response. In relation to this, attitude - an individual's favourable or unfavourable inclinations towards an attribute of an object (Hughes, 1971) - is a key concept in determining a person's behaviour towards an object. A number of theoretical framewoks aiming to explore the link between attitude and actual behaviour have been applied during the investigation of financial products (Lee et al., 2011; Fauziah et al., 2008; Chin & Chua, 1986); however, research exploring the link between attitude and behaviour of cash waqfendowers is rather limited. Accordingly, this present study aims to determine antecedents and consequences of Muslim attitudes towards participation in cash waqf.


Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework developed for this research. The proposed conceptual framework explains antecedents and consequences of endower attitudes towards participation in cash waqf.

2.1.Antecedents of cash waqf endower attitude towards participation in cash waqf

(a) Religiosity

Religiosity has been described as a belief in God (McDaniel & Burnett, 1990), a set of consumption norms (Cosgel & Minkler, 2004) and a belief system and practices (Arnold et al., 2004). In this study, religiosity is defined as the degree to which a person adheres to the religious values, beliefs, and practices that are used in their daily life (Worthington Jr., et al., 2003). Islam is a religion that urges its followers to do good and noble deeds; it guides the acts .of every follower or believer in all cases including good relations not only with God but also with other human beings. The act of contributing waqf is noble behaviour to help the development of ummah as well as to fulfill a religious (Islamic) obligation and receive rewards from Allah. A study by Osman et al. (2014) found that religiosity has a significant influence on the behavioural intention of young intellectuals in contributing waqf. This study will look into individual religiosity regardless of age classification in determining attitudes towards participation in cash waqf. …

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