Academic journal article Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science

Examination of the Validity and Reliability of the French Version of the Brief Self-Control Scale

Academic journal article Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science

Examination of the Validity and Reliability of the French Version of the Brief Self-Control Scale

Article excerpt

Trait self-control refers to one's capacity to promote his or her abstract and distal goals when threatened by competing concrete and proximal goals (Tangney, Baumeister, & Boone, 2004; Fujita, 2011). This dispositional ability is important not only for promoting behaviors that are consistent with desirable long-term goals but also for avoiding and overcoming inappropriate behaviors that produce strong immediate rewards or expected rewards and are hence difficult to overcome (Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Muraven, & Tice, 1998; De Ridder, Lensvelt-Mulders, Finkenauer, Stok, & Baumeister, 2012; Tangney et al., 2004).

Given the benefits of self-control dispositions, high-trait selfcontrol has been associated with healthy habits, such as sleep hygiene, physical exercise, healthy snacking, metabolic control in type 1 diabetes (Barber, Grawitch, & Munz, 2013; Berg et al., 2014; Galla & Duckworth, 2015; Tsukayama, Duckworth, & Kim, 2012; Vinkers, Adriaanse, & de Ridder, 2013), professional discipline and academic achievement (Hershberger, Zryd, Rodes, & Stolfi, 2010; Kappes, Oettingen, & Mayer, 2012; Tangney et al., 2004; Tsukayama, Duckworth, & Kim, 2012), well-being (Ghorbani, Watson, Farhadi, & Chen, 2014; Smith, Alves, Knapstad, Haug, & Aarø, 2017; Tangney et al., 2004), emotional stability (Bolton, Harvey, Grawitch, M. J., & Barber, 2012; Daly, Baumeister, Delaney, & MacLachlan, 2014), and cognitive and interpersonal skills (Roberts, Gibbons, Gerrard, & Klein, 2015; Shepperd, Miller, & Smith, 2015; Tangney et al., 2004).

In contrast, individuals with low-trait self-control are more prone to engage in problematic hedonic behaviors such as using drugs, smoking, consuming alcohol, unhealthy food habits, low sexual self-restraint, smartphone and video game addictions (Darbor, Lench, & Carter-Sowell, 2016; Churchill & Jessop, 2011; Grubbs, Volk, Exline, & Pargament, 2015; Kim et al., 2016; McIntyre, Barlow, & Hayward, 2015; Latner, Mond, Kelly, Haynes, & Hay, 2014; Skakoon-Sparling & Cramer, 2016; Tsukayama, Duckworth, & Kim, 2012; Vinkers, Adriaanse, & de Ridder, 2013; Wang, 2014; Wahler & Otis, 2014) and present low emotional, cognitive, and interpersonal skills (social anxiety, aggression, delinquent behaviors, low self-esteem, self-defeating behavior, and high perceived stress; Blackhart, Williamson, & Nelson, 2015; DeWall, Deckman, Gailliot, & Bushman, 2011; Galla & Duckworth, 2015; Kroese, Evers, & De Ridder, 2011; Miller et al., 2009).

One shared characteristic of the aforementioned studies is that trait self-control was assessed with the average score of the Brief SelfControl Scale (BSCS; Tangney et al., 2004). This scale is a 13-item version of the 36-item Self-Control Scale (Tangney et al., 2004). The BSCS has good reliability and is strongly correlated (r = .93) with the Self-Control Scale (Tangney et al., 2004). Tangney et al. (2004) proposed using the BSCS as a unidimensional instrument, the aggregated score of which represents trait self-control. Nevertheless, multidimensional factorial structures of the BSCS have also been proposed for assessing distinct facets of self-control: inhibition (the ability to refrain from immediate impulses) and initiation (the ability to start goal-directed behavior) in De Ridder, De Boer, Lugtig, Bakker, and Van Hooft (2011); general self-discipline and impulse control (the resistance to short-term rewards or temptations to achieve long-term goals) in Ferrari, Stevens, & Jason (2009); and restraint (the tendency to be deliberative or disciplined and engage in effortful control) and impulsivity (being spontaneous and acting on intuition or heuristics) in Maloney, Grawitch, & Barber (2012).

In accordance with Maloney, Grawitch, and Barber (2012), Morean et al. (2014) reported a two-factor solution for the BSCS. Nevertheless, whereas one of those factors aligned with the impulsivity factor from Maloney, Grawitch, and Barber (2012), the other did not align with the restraint factor. …

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