Academic journal article Journal of Community Positive Practices

Theoretical Approaches regarding the Mobbing Phenomen

Academic journal article Journal of Community Positive Practices

Theoretical Approaches regarding the Mobbing Phenomen

Article excerpt

Introduction

For a long time, looking at the risk factors at work, organizational psychologists have considered only the physical environment of work and the risk factors related to the types of physical environment. Over the past three decades, there have begun to gain weight approaches related to psychological well-being in work environments, employee morale and job satisfaction. (Leymann, 1996; Einarsen, 1999; Davenport, Schwartz, Elliott, 2002; Bogathy, 2002)

Step by step, organizational psychology work has begun to give space to various organizational dysfunctions with psychosocial impact on employees, including the phenomenon called mobbing or moral harassment at work. The term distrimination was far more familiar at that time, but beyond discrimination, moral harassment was a different phenomenon, that could be based on discrimination in some cases, but it was not limited to that. Mobbing has considerable psycho-individual and psychoorganizational effects, affecting the performance of the person at work and his/her health.

The characteristic of the mobbing is the aggression at the level of expression and communication and at the level of relationships, seldom in the form of humiliation in front of colleagues. All these behaviours can be practiced by work colleagues or by the employer and are aimed at compromising the image and performance of an employee, undermining his position in the organization, determing him/her to resign or even give up working in his field of activity. For certain behaviours to be classified as mobbing, they must be repeated for at least six consecutive months.

In Sweden, surveys conducted (Leymann, 1996) show that out of a total of approximately 4,400,000 employees, 154,000 employees (3.5%) were exposed to one or more mobbing-related aggressions weekly for 6 months. Also, 25% of those prematurely retired suffered from mobbing-specific treatments. As a result of this finding, the Swedish government has set out projects to protect the national budget against such financial losses.

Between 1993 and 1994, a normative act (Vocational Rehabilitation Act) enforced that obliges employers to submit rehabilitation / integration plans to the Social Insurance Office when an employee has been sent on sick leave for one whole month or one countless times over a year.

In Germany, sudies show that, out of 40 million employees, 1.4 million (3.18%) suffered from mobbing, and in France, out of 27 million employees, 950,000 (3.51%) suffered mobbing. Globally, gender distribution shows that 55% of those affected are women and 45% are men.

In Romania, several researches talked talked abot the phenomenen of mobbing since 2010. A study delevoped in 2011 by the Association for Socio-Economic Development and Promotion CATALACTICA, within the SOPHRD/97/6.3/S/54973: "Support for Women Discriminated on the Labour Market" with financing from the Social European Fund, showed that a percent of 8% of the work force at national level was a possible victim of such a phenomenon. (Tomescu, Cace, Preotesi, 2012).

One of the first sudy in Romania on mobbing phenomenon was developed by researchers from The Research Institute for Quality of Life, Colfasa Association and other several partners, in 2010. The figures referring to mobbing, on national sample were similar. The same study shows that 25.7% of the participants said that a colleague was repeatedly offended by other colleagues or bosses, a percent of 24.7% said a colleague was repeatedly criticized or reproached and 19.5% said a colleague was discordant and did not integrate into the team. A percent of 41% of the subjects admitted that their boss or colleagues repeatedly scream at each other at work, situations that can generate into conflicts. (Tomescu, Cace, 2010).

Since 2010, the trend of disscussion about mobbing in Romania was an ascending one, a part of the Romanian employee understanding the phenomenon and searching for information on internet and recognising the behaviour and their workplace. …

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