Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Modelling the Kinematic Structure of Movements of Qualified Canoeists

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Modelling the Kinematic Structure of Movements of Qualified Canoeists

Article excerpt

Introduction

The modern preparation of rowers-canoeists is a complicated process composed of the technical, tactical, physical and psychological components. The technical preparation of sportsmen is one of the priority directions of sportive training (Guo, 2007; Hrybovskyy, 2015; Briskin, 2016; Galan, 2016, 2017). In the course of studying the process of rowers' training, many authors investigated the features of the sportsmen's technical preparation. In modern science, different aspects of this issue were studied: the degree of impact of different parameters of canoeists' motion activity on the stroke cycle working phase performance was established, the dependence of environment resistance on the canoe velocity for rowers of different weight was studied; the complex analysis of biomechanical characteristics of coordination structure of movements in rowing on canoes with the use of instrumental methods was conducted, features of movement control in canoe rowing were established; underwater spatial and dynamic vector stroke building was studied, the biomechanical model of canoe stroke was created, features of the boat translational motion kinematics were established, hydrodynamic resistance counteracting the vessel movement and factor of influence on its value were defined; dynamics of muscular work providing the optimal structure of rowers' movements, was studied, interconnections between the dynamics of applying force to the oar, torso rotation and intermuscular coordination were established; mean group model characteristics of the technical preparation of rowers-canoeists of high qualification were developed, the degree of compliance of mean group model characteristics of separate sportsmen was defined; the system for pedagogical control of sportive and technical preparation with regard to the dynamics of insertion processes in rowing was developed; biomechanical features of the stroke formation were defined, correlation and factorial structures of the technical preparation and discriminative signs of techniques of sportsmen of different qualification were defined, methods for programming and correction of the rowing technique characteristics were developed (Sanders, 1992; Kropta, 2003; Zhyrnov, 2007; Kerr, 2008; Ivashchenko, 2017; Gorshova, 2017).

It should be emphasized that the information submitted was obtained in the course of the research and analysis of rowing locomotion technique on the old design boats.

One of the important directions defining the modern sport progress is development and use of new sportive inventory radically influencing on the change of sportive techniques and the methods of sportsmen's preparation (Zhyrnov, 2008; Briskin, 2011, 2016; Choszcz, 2012; Melnyk, 2017). The boat width reduction led to the water medium front resistance decrease at the boat movement and its velocity increase which caused changes in the rowing techniques. It is confirmed by the results of studies in the course of which the comparative analysis of the boat velocity dynamics, rate and rhythm characteristics and work capacity on the old and new design boats was conducted and the features of the stroke dynamic characteristics on the new design boats were studied (Kropta, 2004; Guo, 2008; Zhyrnov, 2008; Bohuslavska, 2017).

At the same time, the sportsman s rational body position and the kinematic structure of movements in different stroke cycle phases, which greatly influence on the boat velocity at rowing on the new design boats, require further research.

The increase of the training process management efficiency can be related to the use of different models of rowing locomotion technique: mathematical, biomechanical, physical, etc. (Priymakov, 2003; Zhyrnov, 2008; Zanevskyy, 2016). Mathematical models of the optimal kinematic stroke structure having functional dependencies allow forecasting the variants of techniques oriented at the desired performance achievement.

At rowing on the new design boats, the improvement of rowing locomotion technique of qualified sportsmen based on development of models of optimal kinematic structure of movements becomes topical. …

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