Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Digger's Activity at Men's European Beach Volleyball University Championship

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Digger's Activity at Men's European Beach Volleyball University Championship

Article excerpt

Introduction

Defensive actions performed by digger are carried out in a coordinated way with the actions of blockers in the net. The combination and coordination between both make up the defensive tactics (Jimenez-Olmedo & Penichet-Tomas, 2017). Specifically, the goal of digger, is to defend a field zones that blockers leave free in their defensive actions in net (Schläppi-Lienhard & Hossner, 2015).

Different defensive actions that must be done depend on different factors, including attack of rival team and position of digger at attack's moment. First they must defend spike or shot attack and, in turn, defenses can be dynamic, if they need to move to be able to touch the ball, or they can also be static in the case of being placed in correct place for make a defense (Koch & Tilp, 2009). These defensive actions based on displacement are the base of digger's action (Chen, 2014).

But different factors determine quality of player in this specific defence position.

First, performance of this type players is conditioned by extrinsic elements that exist in beach volleyball, emphasizing on field area formed by sand (Smith, 2006) and also, for climatic conditions (Bahr & Reeser, 2012). Sand affects movement's digger and ability to jump due to players jump less in it (Bishop, 2003). This aspect increases a work load because in conditions of game in volleyball have been studied less jump height during match (Edwards, Steele, & McGhee, 2010), less jump height due to accumulation of repetitions (Felicissimo, Dantas, Moura, & De Moraes, 2012), as well as variations in blood lactate levels (Mroczek, Kawczynski, & Chmura, 2011). In the specific case of beach volleyball players, fatigue affects strength of lower body and execution speed (Magalhaes, Inacio, Oliveira, Ribeiro, & Ascensao, 2011), furthermore of quantifying the average shares per set for each of the playing roles performed by playing position (Jimenez-Olmedo, Pueo, Penichet-Tomas, Chinchilla-Mira & Perez-Turpin, 2017).

On the other hand, intrinsic elements affect development and performance of defensive actions of this players. It is possible to emphasize the great psychological pressure that beach volleyball players are subjected (Raudsepp & Kais, 2002). This fact has led researchers to evaluate strategies of control and management of emotions used by players (Belem, Caruzzo, Nascimento Junior, Vieira, & Vieira, 2014), being techniques of regulation based on thoughts, memories and verbal communication with partner are the most used antistress techniques (Stefanello, 2007). It is already known that anxiety has a negative influence on game technique as well as decision making (Schläppi-Lienhard & Hossner, 2015). Since greater stress there are worse strategies of problem solving are raised during the matches (Vieira, Carruzo, Nayara, Malheiros, Aizava, & Rigoni, 2013). This is the reason why programs have been developed that help strengthen beach volleyball players (Stefanello, 2009) because self-confidence correlates positively with overall performance (Schläppi-Lienhard & Hossner, 2015).

But not only the intrinsic and extrinsic elements determine a player's performance. It is also necessary to emphasize the tactical preparation as well as work to improve anticipation and reading of rival offensive game. In relation to this aspect, different studies have wanted to know the effect of attack prediction. All of them determining that experience of players as the main reading factor of anticipatory game (Bordini et al., 2013; Güldenpenning, Steinke, Koester, & Schack, 2013) because experience and reading of motor patterns of spiker contribute to a better reading of game (Cañal-Bruland, Mooren & Savelsbergh, 2011) being clear indicators the position of body and orientation of segments when are making an attack (Hernández, Ureña, Miranda, & Ona, 2004).

Therefore, it can be established that role of digger and the actions that he develops are as a consequence of a sum of very specific physical and psychological qualities that help to develop adequate tactical systems that guarantee the defense's team (Jimenez-Olmedo, Pueo, Penichet-Tomas, 2016). …

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