Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Correction of Functional Preparedness of Rowers at the Stage of Maximal Realization of Individual Capabilities

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

Correction of Functional Preparedness of Rowers at the Stage of Maximal Realization of Individual Capabilities

Article excerpt

Introduction

The management of training and competitive activities of the qualified athletes in conditions of the intense growth of results in modern sports is effective only if it is based on the results of research of the biological basis of adaptive transformation and performance of athlete's body (Briskin, 2011, 2016; Choszcz, 2012; Galan, 2017; Melnyk, 2017). It would be efficient to perform such research using a systematic approach, which in the classical sense implies the involvement of as much data as possible to explain a specific phenomenon. A quantitative systematic approach that considers the biological dynamical systems from the standpoint of management and widely uses the mathematical methods and modern potentials of the computer equipment for modeling the processes of the physiological functions, allows us to obtain a schematic, abstracted from the minor details subject of the process of adapting the athlete body functions to the training and competitive loads (Kropta, 2003; Guo, 2007; Galan, 2016; Gorshova, 2017).

Specific features of sport equipment that require a strictly defined response of the physiological systems in different conditions of muscle activity in various sports do not allow us to accurately define the level of specific performance using a certain set of functional parameters, even in similar sports disciplines (types, directions) (Priymakov, 2003; Kropta, 2003; Kerr, 2008; Bohuslavska, 2017). Modeling various aspects of athletes' preparedness taking into account the features of sports specialization is an actual task, since it allows to better understand the mechanisms of body adaptation to the chosen training and competitive activity.

The capabilities of the cardiopulmonary system of the body, which determine the energy of competitive activities and the level of implementation of functional potential in sports with a cyclic movement structure play an important role in the modern training reserves (Sanders, 1992; Kropta, 2003, 2004; Bohuslavska, 2017).

All this requires the use of the systematic approach to the modeling of functional preparedness with the inclusion of the somatic, vegetative and regulatory components of motor activity of athletes-rowers in the assessment. The study of models of the functional preparedness structure of rowers and the determination of factors that ensure its formation at the stage of maximum realization of individual capabilities will enable to objectify the approaches to the adequate selection of criteria for managing the preparation of the rowers.

Materials and methods

The methodology of the study was based on the systematic approach, which involves consideration of the whole object from the point of view of the interaction of its components, whose common activity is aimed at achieving a useful adaptive result.

The organizational basis of the study was the performance of the biological and pedagogical analysis aimed at identifying the key features of the formation of the functional preparedness structure of the rowers at the stage of maximum realization of their individual capabilities. To solve the set tasks, the methods of theoretical analysis and integration of the data from the special literature, observation of the training and competitive activities of highly qualified rowers, pedagogical experiment, which included testing of the specific performance of highly qualified athletes and monitoring of the cardiopulmonary system were used. Methods of logical and statistical analysis of data, methods of mathematical modeling were also used.

Thirty-five subjects, members of the National Ukrainian Rowing Team, aged 24-32, with the following qualifications: Honored Master of Sports - 4, Master of Sports of the International Level - 11 and Master of Sports - 20 athletes took part in the study.

Results

Structural and functional organization of preparedness of the qualified rowers is a complex of functional properties of the system of energy supply of muscle activity which have close internal interactions and strict hierarchy. …

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