Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

The Physical Effort Required from Professional Football Players in Different Playing Positions

Academic journal article Journal of Physical Education and Sport

The Physical Effort Required from Professional Football Players in Different Playing Positions

Article excerpt

Introduction

The rhythm play has become more speedy in modern football in the last recent years and players can run faster, perform technical skills with higher speed and better make tactical decision (Alizadeh et al, 2010). Soccer is an high-situational sport with an high agonistic engagement such to require the development of all the conditional capacities (Gaetano & Rago, 2014) and we play a sport to acquire general and specific motor skills (Tiziana et al., 2017, D'Isanto, 2016, D'Isanto & Di Tore, 2016, Di Tore et al, 2016). Among the different physical qualities needed are the ability to perform straight-line sprint and positive and negative acceleration with rapid changes of directions, often referred to as agility (Gunnar & Pettersen, 2015). Physical demands during a football game differ from each playing position. Coaches and anyone involved in training prescription for football player should take in account for these positional variations in distance covered in order to design position-specific physical drills (Rago et al., 2017). To achieve the best run of form by athletes in the team sports, it must be through a targeted workout methodology, rather than through the practice of the game (Raiola & D'Isanto, 2016ab). The assessment in sport has to considered the technological aspects in virtual vision of exercise and sport science (Cirillo et al., 2016). In the last years it has seen a massive entrance of pervasive computing among sport-related technologies (Altavilla, 2016), in fact, physical parameters detection during training through GPS technology is a portable and cost-effective procedure for monitoring workloads (MacLeod et al., 2009). The GPS can also provide immediate responses to the coaches right after the end of the training session. Overall, the physical fitness assessment strategy with GPS is a commonly used method in sports, especially by professional analyst performance. Physical demands imposed on professional football players have been widely documented in recent years (Rampinini et al., 2007; Bradley et al., 2009; Dellal et al., 2011). Explosive actions are elements of success in soccer; sprint times is often only 2-4 seconds and sprints occurs approximately every 90 seconds (Mathisen GE & Danielsen KH, 2014). A football player, on average, covers about 10 km during a match; however, due to the intermittent nature of the game, the total covered distance represents an insufficient parameter to comprehend the overall physical requirements, while the high speed covered distance seems to be a better performance indicator and has been correlated with the standards of the competition (Di Salvo et al., 2009). Physical requirements detected with the GPS in different football matches involve professional players in the Italian league of serie B. Training's loads were monitored via GPS, recording specific data during the initial stage of preparation and during the agonistic phase of the championship. The aim of this study is to examine the physical needs of professional football players during 20 friendly matches compared to their playing position, comparing the performance result during the agonistic phase with that of initial preparation and with the average of the championship.

Material and methods

Participants

Twenty italian professional footballers were selected to in friendly matches analysis. The measurements were made during 10 pre-season friendly matches of 90 minutes before the start of 2016-17 (n = 10) and 10 friendly matches during the 90 minute championship season in the 2016-17 season (n = 10). Ten elite men's soccer players have been tested for their role (Mean ± standard deviation; age: 27,8 ± 3,1 years; height: 177.8 ± 4.3; Body weight: 74.1 ± 4.1) that they played 90 minutes in friendly matches. Positional roles were: central defenders (CD), full-backs (FB), midfielders (M), advanced midfielders (AM) and attackers (A), instead the goalkeepers were not included for analysis. …

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