Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

Photovoltaic Water Pumping Irrigation System for Diversified Agriculture in Haryana

Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Management Studies

Photovoltaic Water Pumping Irrigation System for Diversified Agriculture in Haryana

Article excerpt

Energy is essential for each and every living organism. It has always been the key to man's greatest goals and to his dream of better world. The history of solar energy utilization is so shrouded in antiquity that it is difficult to know the facts. The escalating price of oil since 1973 and its possible shortage has fuelled interest in the development of alternative energy sources such as solar energy. The development of solar energy applications is aimed primarily in the rural areas owing to a special feature of cost effectiveness as compared to conventional fuel. The factual position is that 85 per cent of the world power consumption goes to the rich and only 15 per cent goes to the 2.4 billion poor people. The population of India is increasing day by day. It has direct impact on ever increasing problems of food, fertilizer and energy consumption (fuel). Therefore, the need for developing renewable sources of energy has become necessary as the existing fossil fuel resources are fast depleting. Haryana State Energy Development Agency (HAREDA) has undertaken the task of popularizing the use of solar energy in the state. It is also supplying photovoltaic water pump to the farmers with subsidy, which is compensated from the funds of Rs.2, 68,000 received from Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources, Govt, of India, on a 2 HPDC Mono block pump of 1800 watt. In a solar PV water pumping system, PV modules convert sunlight directly into electricity and this energy can be used to run an electric motor pump set for pumping water. Photovoltaic-based water pumping system is eco-friendly in nature and pollution free technology can be more appropriate to the needs of the developing countries like India than solar/thermal energy conversion (STEC).

Method

Participants

The study was conducted in purposively selected Hisar, Rohtak and Jhajjar districts of Haryana state. In these districts the highest number of farmers has adopted Photovoltaic Water Pumping Systems. A list of all the beneficiaries of Photovoltaic Water Pumping System, who have installed this system at their farm up to March 2003, was prepared. All the beneficiaries from Hisar (61), Rohtak (47) and Jhajjar (33) were included in the sample and an equal number of non beneficiaries adjoining to the beneficiaries' farm were also selected. In this way a total number of 282 respondents i.e. 141 beneficiaries and 141 non-beneficiaries were included in the sample for the study. Cropping Pattem refers to the yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of crop and fallow on particular piece of land. According to Ramasubban (1963), that cropping pattem has been conceived as, "the distribution of acreages expressed in percentages of total cropped area". It was calculated for scoring purpose by dividing the area under each crop by the total cropped area multiplied by hundred. The sum of all the percentage values for each crop during the year when subtracted from hundred gave the percentage areas covered by miscellaneous crops.

Results and discussion

Profile of adopted and non adopted respondents of Photovoltaic Water Pumping System (PWPS)

Age The Table 1 showed that a majority of the farmers (56.02 %) were of the middle age group (36 50 years). There were 29.08 per cent and 14.90 per cent ofyoung (below 36 years) and old age group (above 50 years), respectively, in adopted respondents. In case of non adopted farmers 48.93 per cent were belonging to middle age group (36 50 years) followed by 38.30 percent ofyoung (below 36 years) and 12.77 per cent of the old age group (above 50 years), respectively. This indicates that a large majority of the farmers of the adopted and the non adopted of PWPS were found in young to middle age category.

Caste The Table 1 showed that 62.41 per cent of the adopted farmers belonged to artisn and agricultural caste and 37.59 per cent of farmers belonged to prestige and dominant caste but none of the farmers belonged to lower and scheduled caste in adopted group. …

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