Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Standardization and Validation of Hindi Version of Positive Metacognitions and Meta-Emotions Questionnaire

Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Standardization and Validation of Hindi Version of Positive Metacognitions and Meta-Emotions Questionnaire

Article excerpt

Metacognitions Questionnaire was developed by Cartwright-Hatton and Wells (1997) and it measures maladaptive metacognitive beliefs as traits that are implicated in the choice of maladaptive coping strategies and, consequently, maintenance of psychological dysfunction. Later, Wells and Cartwright-Hatton (2004) developed MCQ-30 (short version of MCQ) and maladaptive metacognitions factors measured by MCQ have been reported to be positively associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms (Hermans et al., 2003; Janeck et al., 2003; Wells & Papageorgiou, 1998); pathological worry (Wells & Papageorgiou, 1998); predisposition to auditory hallucinations (Baker & Morrison, 1998; Morrison et al., 2000); test-anxiety (Matthews et al., 1999); and depression (Papageorgiou & Wells, 2003).

Recently, the study of metacognitions has gained the attention of researchers in the field of positive psychology (Beer & Moneta, 2010). Adaptive metacognitions are self-enhancing and constructive. Adaptive metacognition and meta-emotion theory (Beer & Moneta, 2010) proposes that "absence of positive aspects in maladaptive meta-cognition theory is not a sufficient asset for an individual to succeed when tackling a problematic situation. In particular, successful resolution requires metacognitive beliefs that help to regulate S-REF activity based on the strategic demands ofthe situation, the meta-emotions of interest and curiosity in one's own primary emotional responses to challenges, and metacognitive beliefs of an agenţie type that support identification of feasible and flexible goal restructuring." The authors also proposed that such adaptive metacognitive beliefs require meta-emotions of interest and curiosity in an individual's own emotional responses to challenging situations.

Beer and Moneta raised the question whether mere absence of maladaptive metacognitions is sufficient for shifting from object mode to metacognitive mode of functioning and successfully solving the problem at hand. They assumed that success in challenging situations requires high levels of adaptive metacognitions and meta-emotions in addition, to low levels of maladaptive metacognitions. They further proposed that both object and metacognitive modes can contribute to success if they are activated each in an appropriate context and in a strategic sequential order that leads to turning setbacks into opportunities for success (Beer & Moneta, 2010).

Positive metacognitions and meta-emotions have been reported be positively correlate with adaptive coping and negatively correlate with perceived stress, maladaptive coping, maladaptive metacognitions, anxiety and depression (Beer & Moneta, 2010). Beer and Moneta (2010) developed the Positive Metacognitions and Meta-emotions Questionnaire (PMCEQ) to measure adaptive metacognitive and meta-emotional beliefs. PMCEQ is an 18- item questionnaire that measures three components of positive metacognitions and meta-emotions, namely, items related to (i) Confidence in Extinguishing Perseverative Thoughts and Emotions, (ii) Confidence in Interpreting Own Emotions as Cues, Restraining from Immediate Reaction and Mind-Setting for Problem-Solving, and (iii) Confidence in Setting Flexible and Feasible Hierarchies of Goals.

PMCEQ is not available in Hindi language for the respondents in Indian culture. The objective ofthe present study was to establish the construct and convergent validity of a Hindi version of PMCEQ. Therefore, given the available literature relating to the positive metacognitions and meta-emotions, the current study was designed to elucidate the (i) psychometric properties, (ii) construct and convergent validity (iii) gender and age differences for predictive validity of Hindi version of PMCEQ (Beer & Moneta, 2010) in Indian cultural milieu in view of the fact that psychological test(s) of proven psychometric adequacy for a given population, if transported and employed for measurement purposes of the theoretical construct(s) in another cultural milieu, may not be regarded as trustworthy and valid measure of the theoretical construct(s) unless preliminary psychometric checks are made (Witkin & Berry, 1975; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1985)


Participants and procedure

Atotal of 838 participants ranging in age from 16 to 42 years (54. …

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