Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Positive Self-Process Program (PSPP): A Pilot Study

Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Positive Self-Process Program (PSPP): A Pilot Study

Article excerpt

Burnout is one of the growing concerns of different work organizations. Among those who are greatly affected are the people dealing with human services such as the men and women working under the health care industry. This definitely posts a threat as these people are in direct contact with patients and are expected to deliver utmost quality care. Tantamount to a highly skilled health care professional is a physically, mentally, socially, and emotionally healthy one as this affects not only the quality of work but the quality oflife as well.

Nurses, being one of the health care workers, sometimes face an overwhelming demand from work. One of the most challenging types of nursingjobs is the one that entails work in a mental health institution. The predominance of burnout syndrome among psychiatric hospital nurses is considerably higher than the general nurses (Hannigan, Edwards, & Coyle, 2000; Jenkin & Elliot, 2004; Imai et al., 2006). This was confirmed in another study positing that they are highly vulnerable to experience emotional fatigue and depersonalization, and are more predisposed to suicidal ideations compared to nurses working in general hospitals (Pompilly et al., 2006). Generally, in the nursing profession, psychiatric nurses are looked upon as a group extremely disposed to burnout experiences due to their continual interaction, and regular interpersonal contact with psychiatric patients and their families (Dickinson & Wright, 2008; Hamaideh, 2011). The nurses' direct involvement with mentally ill patients makes them more prone to burnout syndrome. A number of stress instigating factors such as, excessive workload, conflicting demands at work, clashes and relationship issues with colleaguesjob insecurity, low working conditions, personal safety issues, violence and harassment, absence ofjob satisfaction, lack of rewards and remuneration were pinpointed as possible causes of burnout among the mental health nurses (Sherring & Knight, 2009). Psychiatric nurses play a vital role in providing efficient health services but oftentimes encounter various challenges due to this nature of work. These challenges ranging from locked wards, possible patient confrontation or aggression (Yada et al., 2011) threat of assault or injury to violent and unruly patients are great contributory factors to their experienced burnout (Kindy, Petersen, & Parhurst, 2005). In conjunction with these, role conflicts, career advancement, organizational policies, relational facets within the organization, workload, inadequate staffing, supervision problems, and poor salary scale (McVicar, 2003) are also to be taken into account.

It is vital to the understanding of burnout to relate it not only to the external factors such as the aforementioned occupational stresses but to internal predictors as well. Internal predictors such as emotional maturity, poor locus of control, decreased sense of well-being, and lack of resilience also trigger burnout (Chakraborty, Chatterjee, & Chaudhury, 2012). The task of a nurse involves not only physical or technical work but it is also considered as an emotional labour as they are expected to generate an emotional climate in their professional interaction (Bolton, 2000). But psychiatric nurses unfortunately have limited skills and training to cope with such emotionally distressing situations (Tully, 2004).

The foundation of the study is based on the rationale that reducing burnout improves the quality oflife (Fradelos etai., 2014; Yao etai., 2015). With that objective in mind, we ventured into a study aimed at developing an intervention program that will aid psychiatric nurses to acquire skills and techniques in resolving their internal conflicts brought about by factors associated with their work thereby allowing them to project this outward and minimizing the impacts of stressors surrounding them.

The Positive Self-Process Program (PSPP) is a researcher- developed intervention program that is founded solidly on the Multidimensional Theory of Burnout proposed by Christina Masłach and the Self-Compassion Theory by Kristen Neff. …

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