Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Personality, Social Support and Family Environment: A Comparative View in Migrants and Non Migrants

Academic journal article Indian Journal of Positive Psychology

Personality, Social Support and Family Environment: A Comparative View in Migrants and Non Migrants

Article excerpt

Migration is considered as a series of events constituting a lifelong process with impacts upon the lives of all involved, including those who do and do not migrate, by the movement of people in or out of their communities with resulting changes. It is phrased as a process of social change where an individual, alone or accompanied by others, because of one or more reasons of economic betterment, political upheaval, education or other purposes, leaves one geographical area for prolonged stay or permanent settlement in another geographical area. It involves going from one country, region or place of residence to settle in another. It is the process of social change whereby an individual moves from one cultural setting to another for the purposes of settling down either permanently or for a prolonged period (Bhugra & Ayonrinde, 2004; Bhugra, 2004).

Virupaksha, Kumar, and Nirmala (2014) have defined migration as the process of people adapting to a new environment which involves making decision, preparations, going through the procedure, shifting physically to another geographical area, adjusting to the local cultural needs and becoming a part of the local system.

It is a movement of people from one place to another either permanently or for provisional period of time. It has four associated factors. The first condition is initiated with the place of origin. Secondly, there are factors which trigger the movement from their actual place or country. Thirdly, there are resources which affect the host environment of a migrant. Lastly, there is a wide array of factors that characterize the move.

The reasons for migration are different for each and every person. He may move singly for educational or economic reasons or he may move en masse for political reasons. This makes us understand that migration is a social phenomenon and it is connected with society. It is a sociological event which takes place in a historical and political context. The idea behind migration sometimes is also finding a better life. Therefore, people are ready to leave behind the first and fundamental cultural and psychological identifications and move on to a new and different place in search of a better quality of life.

Some theorists even define migration as a courageous and complex act, which affects the person's life, bringing many changes in the family history and in the individual cultural identity. Migration, with its profound influences on family history can cause ruptures in external cultural framework, which as a consequence, can also cause ruptures in the internal psychological cultural framework of the person (Devereux, 1970;Nathan, 1986).

Migration of Kashmiri pandits is forced one which came in to being in 1990. Thejoumey which they had started in 1990 and the post migration stressors had played a great role in changing their life. An act of mobilization had occurred some 22 years back in 1990, in the Kashmir valley, which enforced the existence of Kashmiri pandits to leave their homeland. Singh et al. (2015) has postulated that forced migration has made them psychologically and physically unstable which is the cause of maladjustment among them. Migration has led to major changes in the life style, family structure and relationships of Kashmiri pandits. Their inability to cope with the ongoing family disturbances have caused disharmony which is responsible for distress. It is revealed in the studies that student community suffers from the feelings of alienation and hopelessness.

When migration takes place, a sense of hopelessness and helplessness is developed which leads to depressive effect. If there is a discrepancy between what the migrants expect and what they get, then it will lead to dejection and it may leave the person psychologically vulnerable. Literature highlighted different issues associated with family environment and their leading way toward distress in the family. Interaction among family members contributes a lot in the mental health issues (Segrin & Flora, 2005). …

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