Academic journal article Professional School Counseling

The Impact of the School Counselor Supervision Model on the Self-Efficacy of School Counselor Site Supervisors

Academic journal article Professional School Counseling

The Impact of the School Counselor Supervision Model on the Self-Efficacy of School Counselor Site Supervisors

Article excerpt

School counselors in training depend on site supervision for bridging the gap between theory and practice, and supervision is a critical element in the professional identity development of school counselors (DeKruyf, Auger, & Trice-Black, 2013; Magnuson, Black, & Norem, 2004, Studer & Oberman, 2006). Furthermore, the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP; 2016), the Supervision Best Practices Guidelines (Borders et al., 2014), and the American School Counselor Association (ASCA) Ethical Standards for School Counselors (2016) call for supervisors to be trained. Therefore, being properly trained and feeling effective at providing adequate supervision is imperative for school counselor site supervisors. However, supervisors are often untrained or have received supervision training that is insufficiently specific to school counselors' activities (DeKruyf & Pehrsson, 2011; Dollarhide & Miller, 2006; Murphy & Kaffenberger, 2007; Ockerman, Mason, & Chen-Hayes, 2013). This is unfortunate, given that studies have shown that supervision training for site supervisors of interns in mental health settings can result in significant increases in supervisor self-efficacy (Bjornestad, Johnson, Hittner, & Paulson, 2014; Motley, Reese, & Campos, 2014). This dynamic is supported in DeKruyf and Pehrsson's (2011) study specific to school counseling site supervisors' self-efficacy in relation to supervision training. These researchers found that site supervisors with more than 40 hours of supervision training had higher supervisor self-efficacy than those with fewer hours of training. Among their recommendations was providing accessible and relatively brief school counselor site supervisor trainings focused on supervision content areas in which supervisors had reported lower self-efficacy ratings; these included models of supervision (See Borders & Brown, 2005, and DeKruyf & Pehrsson, 2011).

Clearly, site supervisor self-efficacy matters. Bandura (2001) described the concept of self-efficacy as critical to human functioning because "unless people believe that they can produce desired effects by their actions they have little incentive to act" (p. 10). In other words, people's beliefs that they can successfully engage in an action strongly impacts whether or not they will. A primary aim of providing supervision training is to increase site supervisors' self-efficacy and ability to provide competent supervision (Bjornestad et al., 2014; Spence, Wilson, Kavanagh, Strong, & Worrall, 2001). The current study compares the self-efficacy of school counseling site supervisors before and after supervision training using the School Counselor Supervision Model (Luke & Bernard, 2006).

The training of competent supervisors should include content on models of supervision (Borders et al., 2014). Supervision models are ideal frameworks that assist with "organizational context" and "societal and professional contexts" faced by supervisees (Bernard & Goodyear, 2014, p. 21). In their study on school counselor supervisors' perceptions of Bernard's (1979, 1997) Discrimination Model of supervision, Luke, Ellis, and Bernard (2011) empirically reasoned out the need for supervision training specific to school counseling based on study results suggesting only "partial similarities in the conceptual maps of school counselor and mental health counselor supervisors" (p. 328). A survey of the literature by Wood and Rayle (2006) similarly found that extant clinical supervision models were inadequate for a school counseling setting, indicating that existing models did not "directly reflect the roles that [school counselors in training]...will be expected to fulfill" (p. 253). Peterson and Deuschle (2006) focused on the contextual challenges of working in schools for nonteacher school counselors in training. This gives rise to unique supervision needs that have gone unmet with supervision models that are not school counseling specific. …

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