Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Structural Relationships among Counselling Self-Efficacy, General Self-Efficacy and Positive-Negative Affect in Psychological Counsellor Candidates

Academic journal article Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri

Structural Relationships among Counselling Self-Efficacy, General Self-Efficacy and Positive-Negative Affect in Psychological Counsellor Candidates

Article excerpt

Psychological counselling is a professional field that provides effective services in many areas of society, ranging from education and health to industrial and social services (Güven, 2015; Kaya, 2014). According to Gibson and Mitchell (2003), psychological counselling has been shown to be highly effective in helping the counselee overcome certain difficulties in his/her life. Thus, the development of qualified professionals is an important variable for both the effectiveness and status of the profession as a whole (Yeşilyaprak, 2011). However, self-efficacy, which is based on the psychological counsellor's professional studies, experiences and related perspectives, is also regarded as an important aspect. In fact, the commonality of these arguments is the strong relationship between achieving the expected outcome in the counselling work and having positive self-efficacy (Aksoy & Diken, 2009; Cormier & Nurious; 2003, İkiz & Karaca; 2011; Lepkowski, 2009; Pamukçu & Demir, 2013). In light of this background, it is necessary to examine the concept of self-efficacy in greater detail.

The concept of self-efficacy came into prominence through the work of Albert Bandura, a pioneer of social learning theory, which is well known in the fields of education and psychology. According to Bandura (1982), self-efficacy is the perception that an individual develops when he/she begins or is about to begin a task. In other words, it is how one plans, maintains and deals with any difficulties during the process, and completes it in a desirable manner. According to social learning theory, human behaviours and motivations are regulated by common sense, and consequently, self-efficacy is the primary factor that regulates such behaviours (Luszczynska, Scholz, & Schwarzer, 2005). According to Yıldırım and İlhan (2010), there are various elements in self-efficacy, such as planning an action, being aware of the necessary skills, combining such skills and examining the benefits to be gained through certain difficulties. In addition, self-efficacy is not a product of the functions of such skills, but the judgments of one's skills; that is, it is not a passive aspect of the self, but a dynamic one (Vardarlı, 2005). Bandura (1994) suggested that selfefficacy consists of four sources that interact with one another: 1) Previous successes, defined as the effect from directly experiencing the achievement/mastery of a goal; 2) Indirect experiences, described as the effect of observing the successful efforts of others; 3) Verbal conviction, expressed as the verbal feedback that can strengthen one's belief in success; and 4) Emotional state, defined as one's positive emotional state in a given situation.

Although some individuals that lack self-efficacy may attempt to appear in control of their lives, they may also exhibit ineffective behaviours, since they do not necessarily trust the results of their efforts. From this perspective, self-efficacy can have a positive influence an individual's motivation and achievement (Alcı, 2007; Pajares, 2002). Moreover, self-efficacy can determine an individual's ability to initiate a behaviour, make the necessary efforts to achieve this behaviour and overcome any obstacles during the behaviour. In other words, having a string of successful experiences can positively affect the feeling of competence, which, in turn, results in additional successes.

Whereas successful results tend to form high self-efficacy, unsuccessful outcomes may cause low self-efficacy (Demirel, 2013; Sharpley & Ridgway, 1993; Türk, 2008). More specifically, individuals with high self-efficacy generally attempt to manage potential dangers, while individuals with low self-efficacy tend to feel inadequate in dealing with potential dangers, after which they either avoid them or tentatively face them. As indicated by Bandura (1988), since individuals with low self-efficacy believe that their capacity is limited, they become entirely incapable of overcoming precarious situations. …

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