Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology

Attitudes towards Instructional Games on Peace Education among Second Year Students in Junior Secondary Schools in South-West Nigeria

Academic journal article International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology

Attitudes towards Instructional Games on Peace Education among Second Year Students in Junior Secondary Schools in South-West Nigeria

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

The prevalence of conflicts in all human societies has been a source of global concern. Conflicts are inimical to the growth and development of humanity. Hence, the need to eradicate or minimize the occurrence at all levels of human interaction cannot be underestimated. Nigeria as a country is beclouded with conflicts in all facets of her nationhood which have equally resulted in under development manifesting in terms of political, economic and social instabilities. Adewale and Bamise (2015) assert the prevalence of conflicts in Nigeria resulting in loss of lives and properties and cumulating into unwillingness of both local and foreign investors to invest in the country. The authors citing Igbinijesu (2013) attribute conflict in the country to tribalism, struggle for resource control, religion, land and trade related disputes.

Attesting to the issue of conflict situation in Nigeria, Ayuk, Emeka, Chibuzo and Omono (2013) report that conflicts and crimes occur on daily basis in the country while Afegbua (2014) affirms that the country is entangled in ethnic, sectional, religious and political violence that have impacted negatively on her social, economic and political development. The scholar posits that conflicts in the country have resulted in loss of lives and properties which has brought untold sorrow to many people.

The need to save humanity from the devastating effects of conflicts led to the drive to implant peace into the minds of people across the globe through the instrumentally of peace education. The National Council of Educational Research and Training (2006) as cited in Ofojebe (2014) submits that peace education is not a mere training for livelihood but the inculcation of values, skills and attitudes that will propel the individuals into living in harmony with others as responsible and responsive citizens. Ibrahim (2011) views peace education as the transformation of the mind based on the acquisition of relevant skills, values and attitudes necessary for the learners to seek and maintain peace.

The role of social studies in developing citizens that will contribute positively towards the advancement of humanity necessitated the incorporation of peace education in the junior secondary school curriculum in Nigeria. However, the continuous manifestation of both violence and non violence conflicts in the country could be attributed to non utilization of relevant instructional strategy in the teaching and learning of peace education. Adesina (2012) citing NTI (2009) acknowledges non effective utilization of student-centered learning methods in social studies classroom. This goes in line with the postulation of Edinyang and Ubi (2012) who identify lack of the use of inspiring teaching method in the teaching of social studies on which platform the teaching of peace education lies. Ibrahim (2011) advocates the adoption of methods that will demonstrate the values and principles of peace in teaching and learning of peace education. Attempt at facilitating the learning of peace education via student centred instructional strategy prompted the design of instructional games in this study.

Adeyemi and Ajibade (2011) quoting Wikipedia (2008) define a game as a structured or semistructured activity usually undertaken for enjoyment but sometimes also used as an educational tool. Adesoji (2008) submits that learning requires children's motivation which could be in form of intrinsic goals, extrinsic rewards or psychological factors. These will make the use of instructional games relevant in the teaching-learning process. Prensky (2001a) identifies factors such as: rules: goals or objectives; outcomes and feedback; conflicts, competition, challenges and opposition; interaction and representation as attributes of games. The scholar posits that conflicts, competition, challenges and opposition are problems in game which one tries to solve through interaction with others. These attributes of games make them relevant in grooming young ones to imbibe the culture of collectivity in solving social challenges and enhancing peaceful coexistence in our society. …

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