Academic journal article Journal of Behavioural Sciences

Job Stress, Psychological Capital and Turnover Intentions in Employees of Hospitality Industry

Academic journal article Journal of Behavioural Sciences

Job Stress, Psychological Capital and Turnover Intentions in Employees of Hospitality Industry

Article excerpt

Hospitality industry is apparently flourishing with its enchanting and lively environment but the reality contradicts the apparent thrive and represents the other side of the story. Worldwide researches have investigated and suggested that employee turnover which is the ultimate outcome of turnover intentions is among the highest in the hospitality industry (Akgunduz & Sanli, 2017; Glebbeek & Bax, 2004; Hinkin, & Tracey, 2000; Price, 2001). Within the hospitality industry, work stress has been considered as one of the most critical matter mangers are dealing with because amongst other areas of importance, it influences the performance, positive wellbeing and turnover intentions of all levels of employees, including managers as well as the hourly employees (Neill & Davis, 2011; Williams, Konrad, Scheckler, & Pathman, 2001). Considerable research evidence exists that turnover intentions can be reduced by effective management of workplace stressors through employee psychological capital. This highlights the need to study the role of psychological capital in occupational stress and turnover intentions to better understand dynamics of work stress and to combat high rates of turnover in hospitality industry.

Job stress is a computation of physical and emotional responses, harmful in nature that takes place when the demands of the job do not fit the capabilities, capital and need of workers (Hill, Miller, & Colella, 2006). A high prevalence of stress at work has also been related with increased rate of absenteeism, work place violence, turnover and low morale along with productivity losses associated with exhaustion, poor performance, absenteeism and turnover at employee's end (Allen, Herst, Bruck, & Sutton, 2000).

Factors that are found to influence turnover intentions in employees directly or indirectly can be grouped in four types as individual variables, organizational variables, external environment and attitudinal variables. Individual variables predicting turnover intention directly or indirectly include both personal/ demographic variables and occupational variables. Organizational variables (e.g. pay and promotion, hierarchy of designations, supervision, peer group relations, organizational star, policies, practices and conditions) may influence through attitudinal variables (Mobley, 1977). Job stress, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction are found as the leading attitudinal factors that are changeable as they have a prominent influence on intention to quit and situational turnover. Feeling stressful has been found to be a mediating variable affecting job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intention to leave and also the actual turnover (Bufquin, DiPietro, Orlowski, & Partlow, 2017; Parasuraman, 1989).

The major behavior intention theories which have advanced understanding of such behavior intentions of quitting typically relied on Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action (TRA) and Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB). Fishbein and Ajzen's theory (1975) assumes that the behavior of a person is the function of his performing intentions to perform that behavior. The underline concept of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) is that all the individuals take their decisions systematically and logically through the information available to them and intentions are anticipated as a consequence of three main factors that are independent. These factors include the attitude of an individual that can be positive or negative; the individualistic norm which reveals the social pressure on an individual, the perceived control of behavior that shows the limit to which the behavior is understood to be under control of choices or preferences (Ajzen, 1991).

Three popular models, namely, Price and Mueller's causal model, March and Simon's model and Mobley's (1977) expanded model extended turnover process as they represented a broad range of approaches to analyzing turnover. …

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