Academic journal article Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior

Customer Dissatisfaction and Satisfaction with Augmented Reality in Shopping and Entertainment

Academic journal article Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior

Customer Dissatisfaction and Satisfaction with Augmented Reality in Shopping and Entertainment

Article excerpt

INTRODUCTION

Let us start with this observation. Imagine consumers who want to know about stars and planets and be entertained while learning, but they lack a celestial telescope. An advanced interactive technology called Augmented Reality (AR) can help them educate themselves and have fun at the same time. Augmented reality superimposes computer generated images and virtual information onto the real world and enhances consumers' perceptions with this integration of real and digital information. In other words, AR is a type of informative media that enhances reality by presenting such virtual information (Lu and Smith, 2007) as three-dimensional product images in different shapes, colors, and styles (Kim and Forsythe, 2008a,2008b).

Many companies-e.g., Application, Zugara, Oculus, Vuzix, Google, and Blippar, to name a few-have started developing and implementing AR technology as mobile applications and smart glasses (Vuzix Smart glass). The life of specific AR technology has ups and downs. Pokémon Go, for instance, was launched in 2016, and it attracted the attention of so many game players around the world so rapidly that in the first month of its release, Pokémon Go earned about $200 million. This game application can be installed on consumers' smart devices so that they can walk around, find, and catch the hidden Pokémon character in the real environment. Nonetheless, since August 2016, Pokémon Go has lost one third of its daily players, and its daily revenue dropped from $16 million daily to $ 2 million (Humphery-Jenner, 2016). The reason for such dramatic losses? Pokémon Go's application was unable to authenticate players and login failures occurred. This is an example of how AR technology can draw people's attention and then platau or die.

More importantly, there is a lack of research helping marketers understand what consumers expect using AR and what causes them to be satisfied or dissatisfied with it. Marketers seem to have little understanding of the AR attributes that may provide satisfactory consumer feedback as a result of consumer positive experience with AR. The literature emphasizes the technological aspects of AR, but it neglects the role of AR in meeting consumers' needs and solving their problems (Swan and Gabbard, 2005). On the one side, AR is increasingly employed in the design and delivery of products (Kozick and Gettliffe, 2010). On the other side, products are often not developed with customers in mind (Swan and Gabbard, 2005).

Thus, this study set out to learn:

R1: What do consumers experience when interacting with AR in shopping and entertainment contexts?

R2: What do consumers expect to be offered when interacting with AR in shopping and entertainment contexts?

R3: What are the gaps between consumers' actual experiences with AR and the benefits they expect to accrue by using it?

R4: Which AR attributes are the major causes of consumer satisfaction and which are the major culprits for consumer dissatisfaction in shopping and entertainment contexts?

The remainder of this paper is organized as follows: First, the relevant literature on augmented reality, consumer experience, and consumer satisfaction is briefly reviewed. Next, the research methodology, analysis, and results are presented. Finally, the study's conclusions, managerial implications (how AR designers should develop AR applications that can enhance consumer satisfaction), limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Augmented Reality (AR)

Augmented reality integrates digital information into consumers' real-world information in ways that help them perform tasks. The physical reality becomes enriched with virtual information, thus consumers perceive a mediated reality created by the interaction between physical and virtual information. As a consequence of this interaction, consumers perceive experiential consumption. In a retail context, for instance, some customers do not purchase online because they lack product information, which in their mind makes purchase decisions risky (Kim and Forsythe, 2008a). …

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