Academic journal article International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education

The Effects of Teaching Informative Text through Processual Model on Reading Comprehsion Skills *

Academic journal article International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education

The Effects of Teaching Informative Text through Processual Model on Reading Comprehsion Skills *

Article excerpt

Introduction

Increasing the effectiveness of the reading comprehension skills is only possible with the use of various strategies. Using different strategies enables students and teachers to teach and learn texts, and to understand the topic (Dönmez & Yazıcı, 2006). Good readers have advanced strategies that they use to comprehend what they read (Vacca & Vacca, 2005).

The demonstration of comprehension strategies by teachers and the teaching of these strategies as models or guides will enable students to learn and use them effectively. Students who successfully learn these strategies will be readers who are independent from their teachers (National Reading Panel [NRP], 2000). At the end of the provided reading trainings, it should be aimed to develop independent readers who can actively use comprehension strategies.

Recently, reading researchers have been especially interested in comprehension trainings and developed various comprehension models. interactive and processual comprehension models, which are two of the comprehension models developed within the frame of constructivist approach, are commonly known and used (Güneş, 2007).

Processual model is a comprehension model that was developed by Kintsch and Van Dijk (1978). In the related literature, the processual model has names such as situation, construction-integration and comprehension model. According to processual model, in order to understand a text, the information given in the text should be reconstructed in a systematic way. It works in accordance with the principle of creating mental representations in the process of understanding texts. In this model, comprehension processes including the process and mental construction of the information given in the text are explained. At the level of micro structures and macro structures, the information given in the text are chosen, ranked, and organized in accordance with the prior knowledge of the reader, structure of the texts, and the rank of importance. At the level of micro structures, construction of the meaning of a word, a clause, or a sentence is conducted. On the other hand, at the level of macro structures, the meaning of the paragraphs, significant parts, or the whole of the text is conducted. At the same time, organizational structure of the text (description, sequence, cause and effects etc.) is also a macro structure that makes the text easy to understand. Comprehension of the text occurs as a result of the association of the micro and macro structures and prior knowledge of the reader. As these processes are repeated, automatic comprehension skills of the students will improve. With its different aspect, this model is not a model in which only meaning units are generated. It is a model that includes components such as visual images and emotions along with personal experiences (Kintsch & Dijk, 1978; Kintsch, 2002; Kintsch & Kintsch, 2005).

Stages of Processual Model

Processual model assumes that as a mental skill, comprehension occurs as a result of the mutual interaction of various stages. The reader can reach the meaning of a text as a result of some stages. Cha and Swaffar (1998) stated the stages of processual model as follows:

Stage 1: First of all, the reader determines what is told in the text. At this stage, the topic of the text creates the focal point of the reader.

Stage 2: The reader determines how the text is organized based on the structural signs and the logical relations between the given information. In other words, s/he explains in which structure the text was written.

Stage 3: At this stage, the reader analyses the organization of the text. In order to do that, s/he focuses on the words, sentences, details, and supporting ideas in the text. S/he identifies the relations between ideas by being aware of the structure of the text, and s/he creates supporting ideas. S/he presents the created supporting ideas as a list. S/he reaches the main idea by associating the supporting ideas provided as a list with each other. …

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