Academic journal article International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education

Adaptation of Teachers' Conceptions and Practices of Formative Assessment Scale into Turkish Culture and a Structural Equation Modeling *

Academic journal article International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education

Adaptation of Teachers' Conceptions and Practices of Formative Assessment Scale into Turkish Culture and a Structural Equation Modeling *

Article excerpt

Introduction

Today, assessment is not only used for accountability purposes but also used for shaping ongoing instruction in the classroom (Darling-Hammond & Pecheone, 2010; Gong, 2010; Wilson & Draney, 2004). This assessment approach called as assessment for learning approach or formative assessment is intended to give information about student learning (Black & William, 2006; Heritage, 2010a; Shepard, 2000). Therefore, it distinguishes from diagnostic assessment approach used to identify students and summative assessment approach used to make final judgment of student competency (Trumbull & Lash, 2013). Formative assessment approach based on cognitive theory and sociocultural theory provides several activities: giving continuous feedback, promoting students' participation, making instructional changes in the classroom (Black & Wiliam, 1998; NCTE, 2013; Shermis & Di Vesta, 2011). Since this type of assessment is to shape or help students' learning during the learning process, it is called as a process during ongoing instruction (Black & William, 1998; Frohbeiter, Greenwald, Stecher, & Schwartz, 2011; Sadler, 1998). Heritage (2007) also defined formative assessment as in four core elements: facilitating student learning, meaningful feedback, student involvement, and learning progressions. Many studies addressed that formative assessment practices have positive effect on students' learning and attainment (Bennett, 2011; Hattie, 2009; Heritage, 2010b; Ruiz-Primo & Furtak, 2006; Sadler, 1998; Sumantri & Satriani, 2016; Jonsson, Lundahl, & Holmgren, 2015; Volante & Beckett, 2011). Therefore, assessment for learning as part of the education reform has been largely focused in many countries such as UK, Australia, Hong Kong, New Zealand, USA etc. The new assessment culture has also been placed in Turkey's current curriculum (MoNE, 2013).

However implementation of educational reforms in schools is a challenging and complex process (Fullan, 1999). Teachers have a major role for achieving educational change (Carles, 2015; Knight, 2002). Teachers' educational philosophies and their conceptions consisted of their beliefs, attitudes, and intentions may have important effect on their behaviors in the classroom (Brown, 2004; Pajares, 1992; Harrison, 2013; Haney & McArthur, 2002; Woolfolk Hoy, Davis, & Pape, 2006). Specifically the quality of assessment for learning approach or formative assessment implementation may rely heavily on beliefs, attitudes, and intentions that teachers have (Brown, Harris, & Harnett, 2012). Several research has been done about teachers' beliefs, attitudes, and practices regarding formative assessment (Carles, 2015; Brown & Gao, 2015; Brown, Kennedy, Fok, Chan, & Yu, 2009; Davis & Neitzel, 2011; Young & Jackman, 2014; Yau, 2004). In Turkey, the research about teachers' formative assessment beliefs, attitudes or practices were very limited (Aydoğmuş & Keskin, 2012; Konur & Konur, 2011; Öz, 2014; Sönmez Ektem & Erben Keçici, & Pilten, 2016). Most of the studies related with teachers' attitudes, beliefs or practices regarding formative assessment focused on only one aspect of assessment but relationship between these variables under a theoretical framework has not been extensively investigated (Yan & Cheng, 2015).

Theory of planned behavior

Theory of planned behavior (TPB) as an explanatory model proposed by Ajzen (1985, 1991) explains human behavior's intention to perform actual behavior (Figure 1). The theory gives the relationships among attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intention, and behavior. According to the theory, a person with more favorable attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control will more likely to have intention to perform behavior. Bandura's (1997) self-efficacy theory used as an indicator of perceived difficulty also has been used in TPB model (e. …

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