Academic journal article Journal of Psychosocial Research

Young Adults' Music Preferences and Its Relation to Their Attitude towards Women and Sexuality

Academic journal article Journal of Psychosocial Research

Young Adults' Music Preferences and Its Relation to Their Attitude towards Women and Sexuality

Article excerpt


Young adults engaged a lot of time in listening to music as it is one of the most frequent and pervasive leisure activities which took place within nested contexts during adolescent development (Boer & Abubakar, 2014). Using a meta-analysis approach, Timmerman, Allen, Jorgensen, Herrett-Skjellum, Kramer & Ryan (2008) found that "listening to music generates an effect on listeners consistent with the content of the music," such as when rap/hip-hop artists communicated themes condoning "power over, objectification of and violence against women" (Bretthauer, Zimmerman & Banning, 2006, p. 42). This study applied the term "priming" to determine "whether music served as a mechanism to 'prime' someone for subsequent actions and behaviours," and in turn, reacted to, incorporated or rejected the media content into the listener's life (Timmerman et al., 2008, p. 307).

The youth of today are being exposed to various types of music genres. In a poll conducted on 1,017 adults worldwide by Social Science Research Solutions of Media, Pennsylvania in 2014, Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) news confirmed that Rap Music had reached its peak of most preferred music genre as 50% of the population voted for Rap as compared to 20% who voted for Country music, 10% for rock, 9% for Pop and a little more than 7% for R&B. Rubin, West and Mitchell (2001) conducted a study on a sample of 243 persons and examined hypotheses and research questions seeking to link music preferences with three attitudes: aggression, attitudes toward women, and trust/distrust. As compared with most other genres, heavy-metal music listeners exhibited more aggression and lesser regard for women, and rap listeners showed more aggression and distrust.

Sexuality, as a term referred to "erotic desires, practices and identities" or "aspects of personal and social life which have erotic significance." (Jackson & Scott, 1996). The working definition of sexuality being : "...a central aspect of being human throughout life encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviours, practices, roles and relationships. While sexuality could include these dimensions, not all of them are always experienced or expressed. Sexuality is influenced by the interaction of biological, psychological, social, economic, political, cultural, legal, historical, religious and spiritual factors." (WHO, 2006). People differed in their sexual attitudes and in the Brief Sexual Attitude Scale (BSAS), four are distinguished (Hendrick et al., 2005):

Permissiveness - (Permissiveness towards an OPEN relationship),

Birth control - (RESPONSIBILITY in birth control),

Communion - (Attitude towards the importance of MELTING TOGETHER with sex partner),

Instrumentality- (Attitude towards ENJOYING THE PHYSICAL SEX).

Specifically, the young adults (16-30 years) have been influenced by the prevalence of sexually explicit media and the negative images of women presented in hip-hop culture, which "teach men that aggression and violence are closely linked to cultural views of masculinity" (Wood, 2012; p. 105). Furthermore, as with popular music, the perception and the effect of music-video messages were important, because research had reported that exposure to violence, sexual messages, sexual stereotypes, and use of substances of abuse in music videos might have produced significant changes in behaviours and attitudes of young viewers (Wass, Miller & Redditt 1988).

In India, artists like Honey Singh, Badshaah, Raftaar, became famous in a short span of time with millions of views on their music videos in all formats of social media. Their lyrics projected women as an object of desire who is only condoned to have sex with. For e.g., lyrics like "I swear chhoti dress mein bomb lagdi meinu" from the song 'Blue eyes' by Honey Singh objectified women to look sexually appealing only when they wore short clothes. …

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